Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) asserted that three specific cognitive abilities, verbal, quantitative, and visual-spatial, were at the core of gender differences. Their findings were the genesis of a whirlwind of studies designed to further research cognitive thinking and its relationship to gender differences, including mathematical problem solving (Zhu, 2007). In a separate study, Fennema and Sherman (1976) took a different route and first introduced the topic of gender stereotypes in school by measuring a student’s perception of his parent’s and teacher’s view of his ability to succeed in math, and the student’s attitude, confidence, and anxiety toward his own learning ability in math. They found that high school students felt that boys w...
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