The Brain Drain and Revolution in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century China

The Brain Drain and Revolution in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century China

Length: 1628 words (4.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Introduction
By the end of the 19th century, Chinese officials were beginning to realize that their country’s educational infrastructure was becoming increasingly anachronistic. Traditional education largely ignored technology—considered it low class, even—and students instead focused on cultivating a sense of moral righteousness. Yet, the Confucian-centered examination system was beginning to prove ineffective in a world where modern militaries predominated in international relations. China learned this painful lesson during a succession of lost wars, eventually entering a long period of introspection, quite notably, by first looking outward. Foreign education systems were of particular interest to this nation in transition. Foreign universities, especially in Japan and the United States, attracted students of politics and economics, engineering and technology. Perhaps more important, though, many of these students later returned to China and became involved in the groundbreaking political and cultural developments of the era as well as the heated debates surrounding this change. “Brain drain,” therefore, works in both directions. For the late Qing and early Republican governments, interaction with foreign ideas not only helped revive China, but also helped the nation transition from a multinational empire to a modern nation state. Ironically, however, in the course of their contact with foreign ideas, these students of Western culture eventually helped topple the very regime they originally sought to strengthen. New ideas and revolutionary change after all, frequently go hand in hand.

The Historical Backdrop
Beginning with the First Opium War (1839-1842), China was forced out of its long period of isolation and shocked int...


... middle of paper ...


...be, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Cambridge UP, 2011. 295-312. Print.
Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs (1993). The Council on Foreign Relations. Print.
Li, Haizheng. "Higher Education in China: Complement or Competition to US Universities?”
American Universities in a Global Market. Ed. Charles T. Clotfelter. Chicago:
University of Chicago, 2010. 269-304. Print.
Orleans, Leo A. Chinese Students in America: Policies, Issues, and Numbers. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy, 1988. Print.
Qian, Ning, and T. K. Chu. Chinese Students Encounter America. Seattle: University of
Washington, 2002. Print.
Rhoads, Edward M. Stepping Forth into the World: The Chinese Educational Mission to the
United States, 1872-81. Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2011. Print.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Mao Zedong Of The 20th Century Essay examples

- Chairman Mao Zedong is one of the most brutal, if not the most, brutal dictator of the 20th century China. He killed more people than Stalin and Hitler combined, justified by the prospect of national progress and reversing the shame done in China by Imperial powers during the late 19th century – early 20th century. His draconian policies to rapidly industrialize China caused more than 30 million Chinese deaths. Even before his death, the international community spearhead by the American anti-communist sentiments, criticized him for all the values he represented: the evilness of a communist society....   [tags: Mao Zedong, People's Republic of China]

Powerful Essays
1449 words (4.1 pages)

Essay about Roles Of The 20th Century

- Europe one of the most well-known area in our history. They have been a part of almost every aspect of history that we have learned about. The question is what are the roles that were played in creating Europeans Empire. The roles that were played in creating Europeans Empire of the mid to late 19th and 20th century were industrialization, religion, and war, there were a lot of factors that went with and went against in this creation. Industrialization a time that we’ve learned that involved the creation of machinery for cotton and steam engines....   [tags: Europe, United States, Idea, Thing]

Powerful Essays
1184 words (3.4 pages)

Essay on Communism And Starvation During 20th Century China

- From the spoon of Chairman Mao: communism and starvation in twentieth century China, by Colvin Null 1. The Famines of Chairman Mao In the late 1940’s, China was devastated and bankrupt from the inner conflicts and civil war they were having in their country. The people of China were desperate for a new system of government because their current government was not getting the job done, but little did China know what they were about to have to go through with a communist style government. The Chinese people hope the new government would bring peace and prosperity to the country....   [tags: Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Communism]

Powerful Essays
1934 words (5.5 pages)

Shanghai and China´s Economic Rise Essay

- Dong’s book Shanghai introduces us Shanghai, a city born in greed and humiliation. Shanghai was like “the ugly daughter grew up in the shadow of celestial Empire’s defeat by outsiders in the opium war. (p.2, Dong)” From late 1800s to 1949, “in Shanghai, more than anywhere else in China, progressive-minded Chinese recognizes the need for China to adopt modern enterprises and technology. (p.66, Dong)” Shanghai, a treaty port ruled simultaneously by three separate municipal regimes, in the first half of the 20th century rose to become China's largest city for many important functions, such as trade, financing, manufacturing, journalism, publishing and education....   [tags: China, politics, economics, Dong]

Powerful Essays
1496 words (4.3 pages)

Essay on China - A Powerful, Emerging Nation

- Napoleon once warned, “China is a sleeping giant. Let her sleep, for when she wakes she will shake the world." The United States of America has been the superpower for past two centuries and still is. But after Beijing 2008 Olympics and even couple years before the event, the world recognized China as a powerful, emerging nation that is attempting to catch up with America. Evidently China is on the rise and no one can deny that fact as news channels and online news sites are constantly discussing issues about China....   [tags: World Politics, Global Economy, Chinese]

Powerful Essays
2623 words (7.5 pages)

The History of Human Rights in Canada throughout the 20th Century Essay examples

- Canada is perceived by other nations as a peace-loving and good-natured nation that values the rights of the individual above all else. This commonly held belief is a perception that has only come around as of late, and upon digging through Canadian history it quickly becomes obvious that this is not the truth. Canadian history is polluted with numerous events upon which the idea that Canada is a role model for Human Rights shows to be false. An extreme example of this disregard for Human Rights takes place at the beginning of the twentieth-century, which is the excessive prejudice and preconceived notions that were held as truths against immigrants attempting to enter Canada....   [tags: Human Rights Essays]

Powerful Essays
1568 words (4.5 pages)

International Political Development During the 20th Century Essay

- Modernisation Theory 1950s-1960s Modernisation emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s; it was constructed from a newly profound position that was taken by America in terms of its international hegemony based on the concern to eradicate social problems faced by poor countries. However in the late 1960s there was an involvement of the US in Vietnam due to modernisation programs that failed. This led to the emergence of a Marxist dependency school that aimed to challenge modernisation school. The battle between dependency and modernisation theory emerged and it later became subside....   [tags: modernisation, policy, politics]

Powerful Essays
1560 words (4.5 pages)

20th Century War and Peace Essays

- The three main theories used in international political economy are constructivism, realism and liberalism. Scholars commonly use the theories to explain economical events in the international political economy. Liberalists are concerned about interest of individual while constructivists are much concerned about how international relations are constructed by ideas in the system. This paper uses realism theory to explain relationships among state and non-state actors in the international system. Realism is based on the idea that the international system exists according to the Hobbestian state of nature, which is anarchic and brutal....   [tags: Foreign Relations]

Powerful Essays
1589 words (4.5 pages)

China's Reformation Essay

- In most works of art, the tone, costumes, and setting can largely influence the mood of the story. A deep examination of the mentioned attributes can possibly reveal latent messages and intents of the artists. This is evident in both Lao She’s Teahouse and China’s The Founding of a Republic. The Founding of a Republic was funded and produced by Chinese government as a celebration of the 60th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China; as a result, it widely regarded as propaganda. Lao’s Teahouse, however, was written about the Chinese revolution from a common man’s perspective....   [tags: History, Chinese Communist Party]

Powerful Essays
1248 words (3.6 pages)

what if china discovered america? Essay

- During the 15th century, the Chinese had one of the most advanced naval fleets known to man. As a result, China was able to establish many trade routes to places such as Africa, India, Singapore, etc… If the Chinese wanted to, they could have sailed all the way to Europe and even as far as North America. However, the Chinese ran into some political problems that prevented explorations in the future. If they had continued their voyages, it would have been possible for them to have discovered the New World before Columbus....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

Free Essays
1268 words (3.6 pages)