The history of modern neurology, neuropsychology, and related disciplines is closely associated with the theory that different parts of the brain serve different functions (Finger, 1994). During experimentation scientist discovered relatively three common causes that lead to brain damage. Lesions are one of these contributors to brain damage; a lesion is an obstruction to an organ or tissue that has been inflicted via tumor, physical head trauma, or injury. The brain consists of four lobes frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The frontal lobe controls thinking and decision-making. Whereas, the parietal lobe gathers sensory information, as well as perception and sensation. The occipital lobe is in command of vision, while the temporal lobe manipulates hearing. Brain damage attributes to abrupt changes in cognition, personality, behavior as well as mood.
Cognition is the mental process that conducts memory, perception, and thinking. Once the brain is damaged these processes can be altered and will be unable to function the same as they have before. Cognition is controlled by all four lobes; frontal with initiation, temporal with memory,parietal identifying objects, and lastly, occipital locating objects. H.M a patient who had suffered from epilepsy had gone surgery to remove both temporal lobe and hippocampus. Due to the removal of the hippocampus H.M developed anterograde amnesia. On the other hand, old procedural, new procedural, old declarative, and working memory were still able to function correctly. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for planning and storing memories. After the obtaining of lesions motor skills can be impaired. The prefrontal cortex is defaulted with accurate spatial and dela...
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...s. Papez originally conjectured an idea that the hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus had contributed to emotion. Like many, Papez able to differentiate between those structures involve in primitive emotional expression and those involved in subjective emotional experience (Finger 1994). When the limbic system is damaged emotion are falsified and it is hard to maintain movement and balance, moreover, vitals tend to decrease.
In summation, through experiments scientists are able to decipher the causes of brain damage done by outside causes. Additionally, brain damage occurs by any head injury, tumors, and/or abrasion. Brain damage to certain parts brain manipulates a variety of function such as memory being altered, being apathetic, and changes of personality. Due to abrupt changes of cognition, mood, personality and behavior is account of brain damage.
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