1. One of the disorders identified in the DSM is Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). BPD was officially termed and recognized in 1980.1 The DSM defines borderline personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster B) as a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, as well as marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following: Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment; a pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation; identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self; impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging; recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats or self-injuring behavior such as cutting, interfering with the healing of scars or picking at oneself; affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood; chronic feelings of emptiness; inappropriat...
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13. Agrawal HR, Gunderson J, Holmes BM, Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2004;12(2):94–104. doi:10.1080/10673220490447218.
14. Arntz A. Introduction to special issue: cognition and emotion in borderline personality disorder. Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2005;36(3):167–172.
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16. Cleary M, Siegfried N, Walter G. Experience, knowledge and attitudes of mental health staff regarding clients with a borderline personality disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;11(3). http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/ano/2002/00000011/00000003/art00007. Retrieved on 27 Feb, 2015.
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