Borderline Personality Disorder: A Literature Review Essay

Borderline Personality Disorder: A Literature Review Essay

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The history of BPD can be traced back to 1938 when Adolph Stern first described the symptoms of the disorder as neither being psychotic nor psychoneurotic; hence, the term ‘borderline’ was introduced (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2009, p. 15). Then in 1960, Otto Kernberg coined the term ‘borderline personality organization’ to describe persistent patterns of behavior and functioning consisting of instability, and distressed psychological self-organization (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2009, p. 15).
Research on BPD was first published by Roy Grinker and his colleges in 1968, which was then followed by a major article on the disorder; written by John Gunderson and Margaret Singer in 1975; their article listed the various characteristics of BPD (Ogrodniczuk & Hernandez, 2010). The article was also a stepping stone in introducing BPD as a valid disorder.
In 1980, BPD had finally been recorded in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Ogrodniczuk & Hernandez, 2010). Now in the fifth edition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists BPD among the fifteen types of personality disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
BPD is a complex disorder in a sense that the symptoms such as depression, anxiety and substance abuse may cause a misdiagnosis thus overlooking BPD completely (Biskin & Paris, 2013). This personality disorder has also been known to occur simultaneously with anxiety disorders, eating disorders and bipolar mood disorders (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2014). In addition, the prevalence of BPD decreases in older individuals (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
The symptoms of BPD are listed...

... middle of paper ...

...A. (2013). Chronic Sleep Disturbances and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81 (5), 941–947. doi: 10.1037/a0033201
Soloff, P., Nutche, J., Goradia, D., & Diwadkar, V. (2008). Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Res, 164 (3), 223–236. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.02.003.
What is Child Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved from
What is Schema Therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Wolke, D., Schreier, A., Zanarini, M. C., & Winsper, C. (2012). Bullied by peers in childhood and borderline personality symptoms at 11 years of age: A prospective study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53 (8), 846-855. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02542.x

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