The Bluetongue Virus and Trypanosoma Cruzi Virus Transmission Cycles Essay example

The Bluetongue Virus and Trypanosoma Cruzi Virus Transmission Cycles Essay example

Length: 1675 words (4.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

1. Introduction
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi) are two of the numerous vector borne diseases that cause diseases in human and animals. Bluetongue virus causes serious disease in cattle while Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (Human American Trypanosomiasis), which can be potentially fatal to humans. Several control strategies have been implemented to deal with and avoid epidemics of BTV and T.cruzi in the UK and South America respectively. This essay will give an overview of the transmission cycle of each infectious agent and will present and attempt to compare the control strategies in a context of design and efficiency.
2. Bluetongue virus
2.1 The Organism and Transmission Cycle
Bluetongue virus belongs to the family Reoviridae and in the Orbivirus genus (Forzan et al, 2007. BTV, along with some other Orbivirus species are transmitted from one mammalian host to another via the biting of adult Culicoides midges (Takamatsu et al, 2003). What is interesting and yet not fully understood about BTV is that it has the ability to survive for 9-12 months in the absence of vectors (this phenomenon is called “overwintering” as it usually occurs during the winter), while the infected host appears to have no symptoms (Takamatsu et al, 2003).
The primary reservoir host is thought to be cattle and the virus can then spread to more susceptible species (Mullens et al, 1986). When Culicoides midges take a blood-meal from an animal that has been infected with Bluetongue virus, the virus undergoes replication in the midge’s body (Mullens et al, 1986). Ten to fourteen days later, when the midge takes another blood meal, the BTV can be introduced into another ruminant, such as cattle, sheep and wild ruminants an...

... middle of paper ...

..., March-April, 23-25

Prata A (2001). Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. THE LANCET Infectious Diseases 1, 92-100

Takamatsu H, Mellor P.S, Mertens P.P.C, Kirkham P.A, Burroughs J.N & Parkhouse R.M.E. (2003). A possible overwintering mechanism for bluetongue virus in the absence of the insect vector. Journal of General Virology 84, 227-235

Web References

CDC, Chagas Disease URL:
[Accessed 2 October 2009]

UK Bluetongue Control Strategy URL:
[Accessed 30 September 2009]

WHO, Chagas Disease URL:
[Accessed 3 October 2009]

WHO/TDR Strategic Direction: Chagas disease( 2002) URL:
[Accessed 2 October 2009]

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Effects of the Bluetongue Virus on Cattle Essay

- Normally, cows in Northern Europe in places such as Denmark live normal lives simply grazing on grass, and existing. However, there have been recent changes that have disrupted this normal activity. Generally the bluetongue virus (spread by Culicoides imicola, a biting midge) has been confined to Southern Europe and other places around the Mediterranean. But with the increase in temperature throughout the area, the midge has been allowed to migrate northward. This new pest is a nuisance and causes lots of difficulties to farmers in the area....   [tags: animal science, agriculture, veterinary]

Powerful Essays
872 words (2.5 pages)

Essay about Trypanosoma cruzi

- Trypanosoma cruzi Life History: Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of Chagas disease. It is most commonly found among people, dogs, cats, and wild mammals in Central and South America, especially in rural communities where people reside in houses constructed from mud or thatch. The vector is the reduviid or kissing bug, which lives in the cracks of buildings and substandard houses8. Often substandard housing/living conditions are shown to have these structural fractures, which provide suitable habitats for reduviid bugs....   [tags: Essays Papers]

Free Essays
1158 words (3.3 pages)

Purity in Circle K Cycles by Karen Tei Yamashita Essay

- What makes a Japanese person pure. Is it their lineage. Is it the fact they live in Japan. Circle K Cycles written by Karen Tei Yamashita revolves around the concept of what is pure. Yamashita uses her own personal encounters, along with stories in order to try to understand the concept of what makes an ethnicity pure, and the hybridization of ethnicities. As a writer, Yamashita tries to explore the essence of purity by using different forms of writing. Yamashita, throughout the book, refers to her own experience of migration to Japan and Brazil....   [tags: Circle K Cycles]

Powerful Essays
2804 words (8 pages)

Drivers Encountered On The Open Road Driving Automatic Transmission Essay

- In the present time most of the drivers encountered on the open road are driving automatic transmission. Many, if not most, go through their life without knowing how to drive manual transmission. The main reason being because of the necessity of using both feet and having to drive one handed. Learning how to drive both is a skill that will open a new world of opportunities. One never knows if there will ever be a situation that will require a person to know how to drive manual, also known as “stick shift”....   [tags: Manual transmission, Automatic transmission]

Powerful Essays
1219 words (3.5 pages)

Analysis of a Transmission Model Essay

- Equipped with n antennas & the remote unit is equipped with m receive antennas (see Figure (1)). At each time slot t, signals C_t^i t=1,2,……n are transmitted simultaneously from the n transmit antennas. The channel is at-fading & the path gain from transmit antenna i to receive antenna j is denoted by h_(i,j) . The path gains are modeled as samples of independent complex Gaussian random variables with variance 0:5 per real dimension, i.e.,h_(i,j)~N(0,1) as we assume that signals received at di_erent antennas experience independent fading....   [tags: antena, transmission, generator matrix]

Powerful Essays
524 words (1.5 pages)

The Sibling Rivalry Between Automatic And Manual Transmissions Essay

- The sibling rivalry between automatic and manual transmissions When buying a new car you always hear the option of do you want a manual or automatic transmission, most people will always chose automatic, for the simple fact that it is easier and safer to drive. Ever since the automatic transmission was made, the market for manual transmissions has gone down dramatically in passenger cars and light vehicles. Most would agree that the sibling rivalry between automatic and manual transmissions has raged in the U.S....   [tags: Manual transmission, Automatic transmission]

Powerful Essays
894 words (2.6 pages)

Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay

- Cell cycle is a complex mechanism that governs the cell growth and proliferation. Cell proliferation contributes to the continuity of life by producing cells, replenishing cells which undergone to cellular differentiation to acquired specialized phenotypes (function and morphology) to carry out living mechanism and towards the end-point-cell-death. Cell proliferation is determined by both extracellular signals such as cytokines and mitogen, and intrinsic cellular factors. Interactions of extracellular signals with intrinsic cellular factors trigger the biochemical events of cell proliferation....   [tags: Cell cycles, biology, ]

Powerful Essays
574 words (1.6 pages)

Essay on The Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma Brucei

- The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma Brucei is the caused of Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as HAT or sleeping sickness. The two subspecies of protozoa that caused the sleeping sickness are T.b gambiense and T.b rhodesiene. The T.b gambiense parasites responsible for more than 95% of the cases and with over 60 million people are at risk and more than 50,000 infected (1). The parasites are transmitting by the tsetse flies. These flies founded mostly on the Africa continent South of Sahara....   [tags: protozoan, tyrpanosomiasis, sleeping sickness]

Powerful Essays
687 words (2 pages)

Business Cycles Essay

- Business cycles affect all individuals within the population. Whether as part of the general public, consisting of customers and consumers, or as part of the world of business, from small local companies to large multi-national organisations. Obviously, all governments aim for economic growth within societies, in order to achieve national progression. This can include various factors such as high levels of employment, investment and general business confidence. However, things do not always turn out as planned....   [tags: Economics Business]

Powerful Essays
1811 words (5.2 pages)

Ironic Cycles Essay

- Ironic Cycles In The Sun Also Rises, Ernest Hemingway uses irony and symbolism to illustrate how a group of Americans and English expatriates lived life. They try to forget the war and restore a sense of meaning to their lives, which he would have liked to do. Hemingway’s attitudes are expressed in the book, including his idea of, “emphasize the optimistic idea of progress of life’s cycle.” When Hemingway was growing up, he would perfect his fishing during his family’s summer vacations to Horton’s Bay....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
728 words (2.1 pages)