According to Blaike Norman in his book the ‘Approaches to social enquiry’, there are about ten research paradigms that have been classified into classical and contemporary research paradigms. The classical research paradigms are; Positivism, Critical Rationalism, Classical Hermeneutics, and Interpretivism (Blaike, 2007 pp 130-131)
. The question that these research paradigms seek to answer is if the methods of natural science can be applied to the social sciences? Positivism as a classical research paradigm invented in 1970 by Sociologist Comte identified that positivism was based on the thesis of naturalism and was characterized by phenomenalism (uniqueness of experience that relies on scientific knowledge), nominalism (asserts that notions on which observation cannot be done have no existence unless it is a name), atomism (object of experience is discrete and independent) general laws (avers that scientific theories are a bunch of law-like statements), value judgments and normative statements (facts and values must be separated; value judgment has no pragmatic content of validity, verification (how to settle the truth or falsity of the scientific statement), and the last characteristic is causation which asserts that there is no causation in nature; only constant coincidences. Thus in summary, positivism approves that m...
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...r to a direction where he effectively studies the text in understanding the purpose of the research and intellectually develop self concept. Structuration will enable a researcher relate with the research at a personal level. In personalization of the research, the researcher is able to relate to the research question thus give it meaning and a valid interpretation. It is not easy to disrepute work researched using Structuaration unless, the critic can come up with a ‘multi-faceted’ interpretations of the research texts regardless of the fact that some of the interpretations may be at logger heads with each other. It is imperative that the research texts are analyzed against the available variables and this requires self perception.
List of references
Blaike, Norman. (2007). Approaches to Social Enquiry: advancing knowledge. USA: Polity Press, 2007, 2nd Ed.
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