In black hole attack, malicious nodes absorb all data, transmitted by source node to destination instead forwarding the data to the next node.
In AODV protocol Black hole attack is classified into two categories: Black hole attack caused by RREP and black hole attack caused by RREQ.
A. Black hole attack caused by RREQ
Following things happen when black hole attack form by malicious nodes or attacker while sending fake RREQ messages:
• Attacker change the originator IP address in RREQ to the originating node’s IP address.
• Attacker change the destination IP address in RREQ to the destination node’s IP address.
• Attacker change the source IP address of IP header to its own IP address.
• Attacker change the destination IP address of IP header to broadcast address.
• Choose high sequence number and low hop count and put them in related fields in RREQ.
So, attacker insert the wrong information about source node in the routing table of nodes that get fake RREQ message. Hence, if these nodes send data to the source, at first step they send it to the...
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Just a hundred years ago in 1915, was the time Einstein created his theories of general relativity, thus the makings of what is known today. These theories helped predict that black holes, actually occupy the universe vastly (Black Holes). Because black holes are virtually invisible to the human eye, since not even light can escape their clutches, it is hard to understand something that can’t be seen or even assume it exists. The concept of black holes can be traced back to 1795, to Pierre Simon Laplace, who originally proposed the idea.... [tags: albert einstein, dense orb, black hole, stars]
1758 words (5 pages)
- Understanding Black Holes Our solar system consists of ten planets revolving around the Sun. The Sun serves as a magnet that uses its gravitational pull to hold the solar system together. If the Sun were to disappear, what would hold the planets together. The answer might be a black hole. A black hole is a theorized body whose gravity is so strong that even light can’t escape from within it (Shipman 64). If light can’t escape from a black hole, then it must be invisible - therefore how can we know that the black holes exist.... [tags: Papers]
1150 words (3.3 pages)
- The whole idea of time and black holes has been questioning scientist and many common people for decades. Whether or not the theories provided make it physically possible to allow us to ever use any type of a black hole to an advantage. Technology over these past years has allowed us to learn more and more about what black holes are and what they can do. While also allowing ourselves to discover new possibilities that they might bring forth to greater innovations in our near future. But we can only imagine, through our knowledge and technology, what a black hole could do for us, due to all the dangers they bring forth.... [tags: General relativity, Physics, Space, String theory]
1699 words (4.9 pages)
- The magnificent life of a black hole. The black hole is a mystery that you will want to learn about. A black hole does many wonderful things in outer space. Black holes in outer space have been a mystery for years. There are many questions such as how is a black hole born and how does a black hole grow. What is a black hole. A black hole is a dead star in outer space. It is where planets and stars disappear at. The gravity of a black hole is way too strong ( Aguilar 39). The black hole is a weird object in outer space and a black hole is formed when two giant stars or more collapse together and basically vacuum anything that comes near it ( Aguilar 39).... [tags: outer space, birth, growth]
989 words (2.8 pages)
- Adolescence is a period in life when individuals learn who they are and shape their identities in relation to their experiences and others around them, such as role models, peers, and family; as a consequence adolescence has always been considered a crucial developmental stage. In Black Hole “the bug” only affects teens, which suggests that the teen plague is not a metaphor for AIDs, but is actually the social, physical, and emotional turning point in which the character s mature from teens to young adults.... [tags: Literary Analysis, argumentative, persuasive]
1786 words (5.1 pages)
- “Black Hole Sun” by Soundgarden Inarguably, the release of “Super Unknown” by Soundgarden transformed the musical landscape during late 1994. However, upon its release, Soundgarden had emerged onto the global platform as one of the pioneer bands playing grunge, an alternative style of rock rendition that was practiced in Seattle. The release of “Super Unknown” achieved commercial and worldwide success, an aspect that catapulted Soundgarden into the spotlight among the other leading leagues. “Black Hole Sun” is the band 's third single in the phenomenal album.... [tags: Drug addiction, Addiction, Substance abuse]
1248 words (3.6 pages)
- The teens who occupy Charles Burns's graphic novel Black Hole are ill with what seem to be a sexually-transmitted disease that the teens identify as "the bug," an increasing number of teens become infected and reside with a group of teenagers that live in separate from their families and individuals uninfected remain students at their high school in uptown Seattle. The ill teens dwell in a tent village concealed in the outskirts of their community, in the forest and they manage to survive largely on the trash and infrequent aid of the well teens.... [tags: Literary Analysis ]
1702 words (4.9 pages)
- When a star "dies" it can do many different things. It can form a neutron star, expand to a red giant and shrink into a white dwarf, or sometimes collapse upon itself to form a black hole. This is mostly dependent on the density of the star. When massive stars, those twenty times the mass of our Sun or more die, they must either exhaust all of their excess mass or implode upon themselves and form black holes. Gravity overwhelms even the nuclear forces. The gravitational force becomes so strong that nothing can escape it, even photons of light, hence the name "black" hole.... [tags: physics science black hole]
717 words (2 pages)
- Introduction Black holes are one of the more interesting topics in astrophysics. Even though they are commonly accepted as being real, their actual existence has yet to have been proven2. Black holes are objects that have such a concentration of mass that nothing can escape their gravitational pull once it crosses the black hole's event horizon or Schwarzschild radius. The Schwarzschild radius is the radius where, for anything inside, the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light.... [tags: space black hole]
531 words (1.5 pages)
- Stars, comets, planets, they are all visible when you look up past our atmosphere. What if I told you that there were objects up there that you could not see, but had more gravity than an object 500 time larger than our sun. Objects, that are capable of swallowing whole planets within a split second of time. An object that would steal light right out of thin-air. These objects are more powerful than anything man made. Black holes are the most popular unknown object in science. A black hole is an area of space that has so much mass crammed in it that there is no way for an object to escape its gravitational pull.... [tags: Black Hole Essays]
467 words (1.3 pages)
- Analysis of the Poem The Wreck of Deutschland by Gerald Manley Hopkins
- The Code of Hammurabi the King of Babylon
- Survival in the Wild Children by Felice Holman
- Wind and Solar Power: The Alternatives to a Carbon-Based Society
- Oppression of Women in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s The Yellow Wallpaper
- Innocent Effected by War