Essay about The Black Death Of Northern And Southern Europe

Essay about The Black Death Of Northern And Southern Europe

Length: 1921 words (5.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

 The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, probably causing several forms of plague.
The Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of Central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1343. From there, it was most likely carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60% of Europe 's total population. In total, the plague reduced the world population from an estimated 450 million down to 350–375 million in the 14th century. The world population as a whole did not recover to pre-plague levels until the 17th century. The plague recurred occasionally in Europe until the 19th century.
The plague created a series of religious, social, and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European history.
Chronology
Origins of the disease
The plague disease, caused by Yersinia pestis, is enzootic in populations of fleas carried by ground rodents, including marmots, in various areas including Central Asia, Kurdistan, Western Asia, Northern India and Uganda. Nestorian graves dating to 1338–9 near Lake Issyk Kul in Kyrgyzstan have inscriptions referring to plague and are thought by many epidemiologists to mark the outbreak of the epidemic, from which it c...


... middle of paper ...


...e Black Death and subsequent resurgences. The authors concluded that this new research, together with prior analyses from the south of France and Germany
...ends the debate about the etiology of the Black Death, and unambiguously demonstrates that Y. pestis was the causative agent of the epidemic plague that devastated Europe during the Middle Ages.
The results of the Haensch study have since been confirmed and amended. Based on genetic evidence derived from Black Death victims in the East Smithfield burial site in England, Schuenemann et al. concluded in 2011 "that the Black Death in medieval Europe was caused by a variant of Y. pestis that may no longer exist." A study published in Nature in October 2011 sequenced the genome of Y. pestis from plague victims and indicated that the strain that caused the Black Death is ancestral to most modern strains of the disease.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Black Death Essay

- The Black Death has affected this world for many years. The first recorded outbreak of the plague was in central Asia. From there, it is believed that the plague spread via the Silk Road, eventually reaching Africa, Europe, and other parts of Asia. The first major pandemic, the Justinian Plague, was recorded in the 6th century during the Byzantine Empire. The plague would appear to come and go through out the ages, wreaking havoc where it could. The next major pandemic was recorded in Europe, where it was called the Black Death....   [tags: Black Death, Yersinia pestis, Bubonic plague]

Better Essays
1043 words (3 pages)

Essay about Slavery: Northern v. Southern

- Northern Wage Slavery vs. Slavery During the 1980's southern blacks from the United States dedicated to migrate to the north with the belief that the north had more opportunities and advantages blacks. Although, Frederick Douglas and Booker T. Washington opposed a migration to the north, millions of blacks migrated northward. The industries for the blacks migrating t o the north was what Douglas and Washington feared, black northern workers being placed in the same situation prior to their movement....   [tags: Slavery Essays]

Better Essays
665 words (1.9 pages)

The Images Of Black Women Essay

- Media always find a way to portray women as sexual object. What’s so upsetting to me is how society portrays women and its always one particular group that stands out the most. Just take a great guess on what group you think stands out the most. Yes you guessed it right, Black women in media always have a very negative view. Media supports negative stereotypes about African American women by showing them in an objectifying darkness. I feel society has to bring down a particular group and that group is black women....   [tags: African American, Black people]

Better Essays
1055 words (3 pages)

Languedoc and Toulouse Southern France Essay

- ... You will find that everything that can be manufactured from the olive tree, Toulouse specializes in many of those products that contain olives such as olive oil, spreads, breads, cosmetic and much more. Toulouse make a good olive oil and a good olive oil base for natural products. (Wright, 2014). Now for the land of the goose in Toulouse is known for its breeding of goose and it originally bred to make the French delicacy foie gras known as a fatten goose liver by force feeding com with a gavage, the Toulouse goose originated near Toulouse and they are domestic and are raised on farms in Europe....   [tags: culinary capitol, olive tree, bakeries]

Better Essays
1494 words (4.3 pages)

Essay about The Black Death

- The Black Death Every year millions of people die. People die either from natural causes or from another source like murder. Cancer and AIDS are the number one diseases leading to death in the 21st century. (Jueneman 1) However, they have not always been the leading diseases. Around as early as 542 AD, a deadly disease broke out in Constaniople and quickly spread around the world within a few hundred years. This disease in considered the worst natural disaster in history....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
886 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on How the Justinian Plague Paved the Way to The Black Death

- During the fourteenth century, Europe faced one of the worst tragedies of its time. A mysterious plague claimed millions of lives, cutting Europe’s population into half of what it was. Historians today call this catastrophe the Black Death. Many people know little about the Black Death but to understand its significant role in history, one must know its early origins, rapid spread, painful symptoms, and devastating effects. The Black Death started its rage in the year 1347, but it is hard to know exactly where and how it originated (Dunn 12)....   [tags: the bubonic disease, European history]

Better Essays
1966 words (5.6 pages)

Essay about Black Death

- Black Death, outbreak of bubonic plague that struck Europe and the Mediterranean area from 1347 through 1351. It was the first of a cycle of European plague epidemics that continued until the early 18th century. A cycle of ancient plagues had preceded these plagues between the 6th and 8th centuries AD; another cycle of modern followed them, but less deadly, plagues that began in the late 19th century and continue in the 20th century. The term "Black Death" was not used to refer to the plagues of 1347 through 1351 until much later; contemporaries usually called it the Pestilence, or the Great Mortality....   [tags: essays research papers]

Better Essays
1171 words (3.3 pages)

Essay about Ring-a-ring o' Roses, Pocket Full of Posies: The Bubonic Plague

- The plague, caused by an infectious fever, has a gruesome and terrible story. This disease was the cause of the Black Death, which killed one third of Europe’s population in the 14th century, and killed around 75,000-100,000 citizens in London. Over 25 million citizens died during this time, leaving both an economic and political management in desperate times. The plague that affected European cities has been considered to be one of the worst epidemics in the Medieval Time. From 1347 to 1350, the Black Death hit Northern Europe....   [tags: the black death, ]

Better Essays
943 words (2.7 pages)

The Effects of The Black Death on the Economic and Social Life of Europe

- The Effects of The Black Death on the Economic and Social Life of Europe The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351. The disaster affected all aspects of life. Depopulation and shortage of labor hastened changes already inherent in the rural economy; the substitution of wages for labor services was accelerated, and social stratification became less rigid. Psychological morbidity affected the arts; in religion, the lack of educated personnel among the clergy gravely reduced the intellectual vigor of the church....   [tags: European Europe History]

Free Essays
1343 words (3.8 pages)

The Vitality of Black Leadership in the Struggle for Equality for Black Americans

- The Vitality of Black Leadership in the Struggle for Equality for Black Americans Introduction: Essay: Vivienne Sanders described the years between 1880-1925 that individual activists emerged- as 'decades of disappointment' (1) because even with growing political activeness only certain measures proved successful. It could be argued then that this was the case for first real black activist and spokesperson Booker T Washington. It was in the educational aspirations of blacks that reconstruction would have a great impact and as an ex-slave and now a teacher, Washington was to provide vocational education through his Tuskgee Institute....   [tags: Papers]

Better Essays
1342 words (3.8 pages)