Birth Defects and Abnormalities Essay

Birth Defects and Abnormalities Essay

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Have you ever heard someone talking about his or her birthmark, and were curious to know if you had one? Maybe you did have one or knew someone with one also, but was wondering to how they even got one. The proper way to refer to one of those marks on the human body is not a birthmark, it is actually a defect that someone was born with and is considered a birth defect. “Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. They are the leading cause of death for infants during the first year of life. (Cuhna, John F.)” About three percent of babies in the United States are born with a birth defect, ranging from minor marks on the body to major body defects also resulting in about twenty percent of infant deaths. (Cuhna, John F.) Throughout this paper what birth defects are, how you receive them, and the leading causes of birth defects will be major factors.
Birth defects are caused by three factors; chromosomal abnormalities, single-gene defects, and multifactorial influences. During conception a fetus receives its genetic makeup, birth defects that come from genetic causes are usually brought about during fertilization. In order for the birth defect to occur these four procedures could have taken place: chromosomal abnormalities, large-scale duplication, deletions of chromosomal segments, or entire chromosomes. (Lobo, Ingrid, Ph.D., and Kira Zhaurova, M.S.) Single-gene defects majority of the time are inherited, unlike chromosomal abnormalities which is caused by genetics. Phenylketnouria (PKU), is a disease that is commonly known to be inherited.
Single-gene defects can also be common within different racial and ethnic groups. Take sickle-cell anemia for instance, ...


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Cunha, John F., DO. FACOE. "Birth Defects: Learn About the Causes." MedicineNet. N.p., 15 Apr.
2014. Web. 09 May 2014. .
"Data & Statistics." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 15 July 2013. Web. 09 May 2014. .
Lobo, Ingrid, Ph.D., and Kira Zhaurova, M.S. "Birth Defects: Causes and Statistics." Nature.com.
Nature Publishing Group, 2008. Web. 09 May 2014. .
"Overview of Birth Defects." Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters Health System. Children's
Hospital of The King's Daughter, 23 June 2013. Web. 09 May 2014. https://www.chkd.org/HealthLibrary/content.aspx?pageid=P02113

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