For a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, individuals must meet the criteria for a manic episode.
First, individuals must present a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity lasting at least one week and present most of the day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Second, during the period of mood disturbance and increased activity, at least three symptoms must be present and represent a noticeable change from usual behavior. Third, the mood disturbance is severe that it causes impairment in social or occupational functioning or requires hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Lastly, the episode is not caused by substance use or another medical condition. The significant feature of a manic episode is a distinct period during which there is an abnormally, that is persistently elevated and persistently increased activity or energy is present nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
The twelve-month prevalence estimate in the US is 0.6 percent (American Psychiatric Association, 201 ). The lifetime male-to-female prevalence ratio is about 1.1:1 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The twelve-month prevalence of bipolar I disorder across eleven countries ranges from 0.0 percent to 0.6 percent (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
The average age at onset of the first episode is age eighteen (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In children, special considerations are necessary to detect the diagnosis due to a difference in age and developmental stages. More than 90 percent of individuals who have a singl...
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...other related psychotic disorders, panic disorder or other anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, ADHD, personality disorders, other bipolar disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
At least 15 percent of individuals have some type of inter-episode dysfunction and about 20 percent transition into another mood episode without inter-episode recovery (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals have a hard time in functional recovery. Similar to bipolar I, functional recovery is slow, especially in occupational recovery, which results in low socioeconomic status (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals with bipolar II disorder perform more poorly than healthy individuals on cognitive tests and have similar cognitive impairment to individuals with bipolar I disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
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