Biotechnology Project : Oculocutaneous And Ocular Albinism Essay

Biotechnology Project : Oculocutaneous And Ocular Albinism Essay

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Biotech Project: Oculocutaneous and Ocular Albinism

Introduction: An Albino Overview

Name comes from Latin "albus," meaning "white." It is also occasionally known as lso called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis.
A congenital disorder.
A congenital disorder (or disease) is a defect existing at birth. Of these disorders, those characterized by structural deformities of the body are known as "congenital anomalies" and involve either physical damage to a developing fetus, or genetic mutations in the development of said fetus.

Reasons for the occurrence of congenital anomalies may include the inheritance of damaged or abnormal genes from either of the parents, or a newly occurring mutation in a germ cell that the fetus gave rise to. If an egg is fertilized with sperm that has damaged DNA, there is a chance that the fetus will develop abnormally.
Genetic diseases come in several varieties: Single-defect, multi-defect, or chromosomal.
Single-defect diseases arise from inheriting two copies of a damaged respective gene, or one copy of a dominant gene.
Multi-defect diseases are the result of numerous damaged genes.
Chromosomal disorders occur in loss or duplication of larger parts of chromosomes, often affecting significant body parts.

Characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase.
Tyrosinase is an enzyme that controls the production of melanin.
It can be found inside synthesised melanosomes in the skin.
It also catalyzes production of melanin by oxidation; if a fruit or vegetable is left out for a few days and blackens, tyrosinase is at work.

Biological pigment is a substance produced by an organism that allows it to project color through...

... middle of paper ...

...ented parts of the eye.

Tyrosine is converted into one of two types of melanin: eumelanin (“black-brown”) or pheomelanin (“red-blond”). Mutations affecting proteins and/or enzymes in the way of melanin’s path result in little to no melanin production (by lack of tyrosine being converted into melanin via the enzyme tyrosinase).

Mutations to the tyrosinase enzyme cause OCA type 1 and OA, the most common and easily explainable.

The “P” protein is involved in the movement of tyrosine before it synthesizes to form melanin. If this gene is damaged, the outcome with be OCA type 2.

Elimination of the Damaged Gene:

Albinism can’t be cured, seeing as it’s a congenital disease.

The effects of it, however, can be treated.

Selective breeding is the easiest way to eliminate the risk of albinism; unfortunately, this probably isn’t a very realistic way to do it.

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