Biology And The Field Of Microbiology Essay

Biology And The Field Of Microbiology Essay

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Biology is the study of living organisms divided into specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution. One of the most important fields within biology is microbiology, a field that details the function and behavior of microorganisms that remain invisible to the human eye. Using devices like electron microscopes scientist are able to identify, characterize, and record the morphologies and behaviors of various microorganisms. One of the most essential components of all organisms including microorganisms is their genetic information. With the development of microbiology over the past century, DNA has been identified as the macromolecule that carries genetic information. Some key experimentations related to the field of microbiology that helped establish DNA as the primary macromolecule that carries genetic information are the Griffith experiment, the Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty experiment, and the Hershey–Chase experiment.
The concept of microbiology emerged in the late 1600s when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first observed bacteria and other microorganisms using a single lens microscope. The microscope manufactured and used by Leeuwenhoek served as a catalyst for the field of microbiology, exposing a whole world of microorganisms. With the utilization of tools like microscopes and methods like ink staining, scientist have been able to step into a seemingly invisible world and note the contribution of microorganisms to human life. These tools and methods have been essential to the discovery that DNA was the macromolecule charged with the transformational ability of genetic information in bacterial cells
The first experiment to establish the presence of a macromolecule holding gen...

... middle of paper ...

...most important macromolecules in all living organisms, was lead by microbiology. Working with and dissecting cells that remain invisible to the naked human eye is one of the main components of microbiology. When scientist analyze Griffith’s experiments they are able to observe the protective capsule surrounding the S-strain cells by embedding the organism in India ink before sectioning it and using an electron microscope (3). This allowed them to actually note the presence of a smooth exterior and the transformational ability of the genetic material. The same techniques were also used to enhance all of the previously mentioned experiments. Electron microscopes and other other innovations from the field of microbiology helped validate the initial findings of these experiments and establish DNA as the macromolecule that facilitates the transfer of genetic information.

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