Essay on The Biological Metaphor For Cities

Essay on The Biological Metaphor For Cities

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I. Introduction
Urbanization is a new global trend nowadays. Since 2007, more than half of the world population live in urban centres while there only 30% of the world’s population was urbanized not earlier than 60 yeas ago. Recent research has also shown that the entire planet is going to be about 80% urban by around 2050, and millions people will move to cities mainly in south Asia and Africa [1]. Under this circumstance, both positive and negative reviews come along with such a significant increase in global urbanization. On the good side, cites supply solution such as creativity, power and wealth. However, people also critique that cities have also been the source of much pollution and disease. As a result, an appropriate and effective management is very crucial for policy-makers or governors. To help them understanding the living city better, cities can be seen as three different points of view: Cities as an extended phenotype, as living organisms or biodiversity in cites. These are the biological metaphor for cities. In this essay, the first two views will be analysed only.
II. Cities as An Extended Phenotype
The extended phenotype is a biological concept and was first advocated by Richard Dawkins. The main idea is that phenotype should not be limited to biological processes such as protein biosynthesis or tissue growth, but extended to include all effects that a gene has on its environment, inside or outside the body of the individual organism [2]. For example, the genes make up of a woodpecker and the phenotype decides it will drill and drum on trees for extracting food. However, the extended phenotype not only shows us a woodpecker as an individual organism, but also tells us a woodpecker eats the pets and hence trees (en...

... middle of paper ...

...le needs to be put into action by city planners as
soon as possible in order to level up the living city. The urban management
should be ultimately related to the natur
Besides, we should treat the two concepts dialectically. The extended phenotype
and organism are all describing biological systems. And biological systems follow
scientific rules.
Urban city is far more complicated than that with social
Comparing cities to living things, which change over time as they interact
with the nature, can help understand the structure of the city and make
efficacious recommendations. However,
the application of the idea of an organic
growth process
within an urban planning context has been freely modified into a vision that largely ignores the final result and is concerned only with the process, as part of which flexibility and users constitute a high priority.

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