Freud was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1856, during the Victorian era. His father, Jackob, was a Jewish wool merchant, and his father's second wife, Amalia, was Freud's mother. He was the firstborn in a family of three boys and five girls. When Freud was four-years-old, his family moved to Vienna where he remained until the Nazi occupation of Austria in 1933 (Gay, 1989).
Freud distinguished himself academically at a very young age. He was a prolific writer, and an avid reader in the arts, humanities, and sciences When he was seventeen-years-old, he began attending the University of Vienna to study medicine, which was one of the few opportunities offered for a young Jewish man during this time. He entered into the program with ambitions of becoming a research scientist, but was unable to do so because there was a quota for Jews in that field which had already been filled. As an alternativ...
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...hat in addition to the unconscious, to which he referred as the “personal unconscious”, there was also a deeper, more universal layer called the “collective unconscious”. According to Jung, the collective unconscious is a part of the human psyche that contains images, thoughts, and feelings shared by all human beings, organized in underlying patterns, and is modified by each person’s subjective experience (Stevens, 1990; Wedding, Corsini, & Dumont, 2008). Using his own ideas about the psychic structure, Jung began to develop his own theories about dream interpretation. Jung’s theories about dreams were heavily impacted by those of Freud; however, Jung thought that dreams were direct messages, and a natural expression of the unconscious. This was unlike Freud, who believed that dreams are disguised fulfillments of repressed wishes (Stevens, 1990; Lear, 2005).
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