The first research on bilingualism concluded that bilingualism did not aid but rather hindered learning. This was supported by studies which found monolingual students out performed bilingual students on cognitive tasks (Adescope). However in 1962 a study by Peal and Lambert exposed the methodological flaws in previous studies; as bilingual and monolingual participants were not matched by SES, second language proficiency, language of assessment, among other factors. After for controlling for these factors Peal and Lambert found that bilingual participants outperformed monolinguals on several measures of intelligence.
There are several domains of language development for a dual language learner. The domains, phonology, syntax and morphology, and semantics all affect a child’s language use. The acquisition of first language and development of these domains occur during early childhood. The type and amount of exposure a dual language learner has when acquiring their second language affects their acquisition of language greatly. Latino children in the US typically acquire Spanish as an L1 and English as an L2. Sequential bilinguals, which most Latino immigrant children are, acquire L1 before three years of age and the second language later. Dual language (profiles) are determined by the competence in both languages, according to their age.
Having proficiency in more than one language may lead to an increase in cognitive abilities. Various studies suggest being bilingual may benefit cognitive control, a narrower scope of attention (Christoffels) growth in metalinguistic awareness, concept formation and creativity. (Claudio-not sure which paper and Marian and Shook, 2012))
... middle of paper ...
...honological awareness with English word identification. These findings suggest that phonological awareness is a language-general rather than a language-specific cognitive process. In their regression analysis it was indicated that phonological awareness accounted for variability in 1st grade reading skills in both Spanish and English. This supports the idea that phonological awareness is a critical element in attaining successful reading skills.
Being able to have strong literacy skills in Spanish allows you to use those skills in the English language as well.
How this can impact children in a school setting.
Adesope, et al., 2010; Blumenfeld, 2009; Marian, 2012.
C. How the proficiency of L1 and L2 predicts overall academic achievement. (?)
Relationship between maintenance of L1 and overall academic achievement
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