Over the course of human history it can be seen that the forms of media that have been used can be separated into four broad categories. There are oral cultures, which originated around 100, 000 years ago and are where speech is the only, or primary, means of communication (Macionis and Plummer, 2012: p766). There are writing cultures, where written languages are developed and become the most effective means of communication (ibid). Print cultures developed more recently, beginning with the invention of movable type printing in China as early as 1040 AD, and then more famously by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany around 1450 AD (ibid; Fulcher and Scott, 2011: p360). Finally there are electronic cultures, which are currently what most of humanity’s communic...
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