The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) will be best remembered for inaugurating India into the elite nuclear club in May 1998, a decision that coincided with a period of changing international norms which grew increasingly illiberal of nuclear proliferation. The five test explosions, Pokhran II are arguably a result of futile attempts to ensure national security through extant nuclear powers. (Kennedy, 2001, pp. 120) Conversely, “The typical argument at the time was that the Indian government was pursuing nuclear weapons either because they were irrational or were suffering from status deficiency.” (Mearsheimer, 2000, pp. 64) Therefore the question must be asked; Was the underlying motive of India’s decision to test nuclear devices and become a recognised nuclear power, one of defence or development? Could nuclear proliferation be justified as a means of ensuring national security from the impending threat of China’s emerging nuclear capabilities, apace with its growing collaboration with Pakistan? Or an attempt to alleviate India’s international status? - A staple of foreign policy since inception as an independent state in 1947. Due to the assumption of a fixed and anarchic world, “none can ever feel entirely secure in such a world of competing units, power competition ensues and the vicious circle of security and power accumulation is on” (Herz, 2005 pp. 87) The analysis of the events preceding the 1998 decision and its effect on India’s psyche, guided by Structural neorealist theory will allow gained insight into motives that drove India to test nuclear weapons.
Rivalry in South Asia
In 1958, China for the first time publicly indicated that it would develop nuclear weapons. Notwithstanding Nehru 's unconcerned public posture, the I...
... middle of paper ...
.... It is
argued that we can attribute this persistent interest in nuclear diplomacy to the economic constraints that India faced, which made investing in nuclear armament expensive and unappealing. (Cohen, 2000, pp. 45) It is also important to note that, many viewed that an external security guarantee was nothing short of sacrificing the country 's sovereignty and non- aligned policy and inviting Western powers to dominate India. (Krieger and Roth, 2007, pp. 378)
Perception of Power
Traditionally, the concept of national interest and security has been identified in terms of the Westphalian concept of the nation-state, which is essentially realist. In this the national interest of any given country was conceived in terms of its military security and military security was defined as the integrity of its national territory and of its institutions. (Vanaik, 2009, pp. 89)
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The murder of the worker of Vishva Hindu Parishad, Arun Mahaur and the fiery speech made by Katheria in his condolence meeting is not the outcome of the instantaneous rage in reality. Its deadly power is going to last till the Assembly election in Uttar Pradesh the next year. And to win the largest state of India, all political parties are now busy in laying the political chess with full force nowadays. ……………. The statements made in the recent days by some leaders of the governing political party, BJP, a few ministers and some leaders and workers of the Hindu organizations and the lack of any positive reaction from the responsible leaders of the BJP, created such misconception that the Naren... [tags: Bharatiya Janata Party, India, Delhi]
751 words (2.1 pages)
- India as a country has had many ups and downs some of these changes have become long standing and some change over time or with different Politian’s at the helm of the nation’s political system. Some of these changes are from outside influencers like the British government and some are a combination of many different ideas and from many different backgrounds. The differences between what has stayed and what changed throughout the years is something that I would say is a combination of what worked for India and what didn’t.... [tags: Mumbai, India, Bharatiya Janata Party]
798 words (2.3 pages)
- “Bharat” and “India” Two Ideas of an Independent Indian State Hindu revivalism has been a part of Indian nationalism almost since the independence movement itself began. However, it has gone through many forms and been embodied in many different organizations, often being ignored in the forum of Indian politics. However, the victory of the Hindu revivalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the elections since 1998 has forced many scholars to reconsider the history of such movements, to analyze the forms they have taken throughout the 20th century.... [tags: Hindu Bharatiya Independence]
3589 words (10.3 pages)
- Much has been said about India’s party politics. It has travelled though many phases. It has been characterised differently at different points of time e.g. One Party Dominant System, competition between national and regional parties, a clear fight between two broad alliances and a recurrent appearance of third front etc. This third front business usually represents the regional parties (though some of them claim to be national parties) and an uncanny opportunism disguised as regional aspirations.... [tags: government, janata, congress]
1161 words (3.3 pages)
- The United States, comprised of much political diversity, has only two major political parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The Republican Party was founded by anti-slavery activists on March 20th, 1854, and is represented by its mascot, the elephant. Often referred to as the “Grand Old Party”, or GOP, Republicans favor customs that exude traditional Christian values with a platform based on American Conservatism. As a Christian myself, the values I share with Republican ideals are a main reason I side with the Republican Party.... [tags: Democratic Party, Republican Party, George W. Bush]
1153 words (3.3 pages)
- In today’s society it is important for the citizens to cast their votes for the reasons of it’s the people’s votes that matter. The people can make a change in the country. Choosing the political view that stand out most and seem the most affective helps in choosing what party to vote for. “The Democratic Party is the party that opened its arms. We opened them to every nationality, every creed. We opened them to the immigrants. The Democratic Party is the party of the people.” – Richard J. Daley.... [tags: Democratic Party, Barack Obama, Want]
1233 words (3.5 pages)
- The Political State of Countries The political state of countries today is always changing and developing into new and hopefully more efficient methods of running a country. In comparing and contrasting the political setup of two countries a good understanding of the different systems is easily seen. The fall of Communism in many parts of the world has triggered countries like Russia to create new political systems and political parties. This also changes the functioning of the economy and the military.... [tags: Papers]
994 words (2.8 pages)
- I. Introduction This paper examines the extent to which the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in collusion with Sangh Parivar constituents Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Vishwa Hindu Parishwas (VHP) have sought to undermine secular India through subversive measures in implementing Hindu nationalistic programs to secure political power. The BJP remains the sole political party out of these named factions, yet through the historical and cultural power of the RSS and widespread religious influence of the VHP, the entire movement of the Sangh Parivar has been able to garner a stronghold in the country's political arena through corrupt anti-Muslim rhetoric and discursive measures to initiate H... [tags: World Cultures]
2616 words (7.5 pages)
- Speak the Language: A Global Analysis "Globalization and immigration have transformed today's business world. Many organizations are looking for solutions to improve communication between the established corporate culture and the new multicultural workforce" (Cross Cultural Consulting and Training, para. 1). Since its beginnings in 1986, Speak the Language focused mainly on foreign companies operating in the United States. Since then the company has seen a sore need for language and culture assimilation services outside the U.S.... [tags: India Business Analysis Culture]
1638 words (4.7 pages)
- Government in India Today India's present constitution went into effect on Jan. 26, 1950. At that time, the nation changed its status from a dominion to a federal republic, though it remained within the Commonwealth. A president, chosen by an Electoral College replaced the governor-general, appointed by the British Crown. The president is the official chief of state, but the office is largely ceremonial. In parliamentary government, the people in a country elect members of at least one house of the legislature (by any variety of means: proportional representation as in Israel, single member districts as in Britain).... [tags: Papers]
2656 words (7.6 pages)