The Between Subway Expansion And Air Quality Condition Essay

The Between Subway Expansion And Air Quality Condition Essay

Length: 1564 words (4.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

3 Data
1. Air Pollution Index
In order to examine the relationship between subway expansion and air quality, I choose the daily Air Pollution Index to represent the air quality condition. The Air Pollution Index is a simple number that shows the level of air pollution in this city or area, and is based on five atmospheric pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particulates (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) measured at the monitoring stations throughout each city. The pollutants that Chinese government taking into account in Chinese API are the first three. The mechanics of the API level is that, an individual score is assigned to each pollutant based on their levels, and the final API is the highest of the three pollutant scores (The standard of scoring each pollutant is showed in Table 1).
Table 1: Transformation from Pollutant Concentration to API

For Beijing, there are two types of API data that can be access through the government’s website, one is the aggregate daily API released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, another one is the station-level daily API released by Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (MEMC).
The station-level API data is more preferred because of its objectivity. The aggregate API is a number combined from all monitoring stations in Beijing, and is more easily to be manipulated by the government in order to give the public a false impression that the air pollution problem in Beijing is not as bad as it appears. Well the station-level API is different numbers monitored by 27 different monitoring stations that are located all around Beijing. Since the monitors are located in different locations, the index they monitored would ...


... middle of paper ...


...lso verify this argument by the graphs generated from the raw data, showing the average API for treatment and control group during 60 weekdays before and after the subway opening.
Test of Parallel Trend Assumption
Prior to the basic model, we test the most important assumption for DD – the parallel trend assumption.
DD with Continuous Measure of Time

Different from the standard DD, we take one step further and replace the time indicator for subway opening with a continuous variable which takes the value of zero for all dates before subway opening, and continuous numbers of days for dates after the opening date. The interaction term in turn is replace with . Assume the the impact of subway expansion on ln(API) is linear in time, then captures the difference in the effect between two groups for one more day after the subway opens.
Heterogeneity in Treatment Group

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Amazing Journey Of Subway Essay examples

- Subway is a well known restaurant, you see them everywhere from strip malls, in some grocery stores and even on school campuses. Many people do not remember or known the amazing journey this restaurant has went on. Starting in 1965, When 17 year old Fred DeLuca and Dr. Peter Buck teamed up to open the first subway originally known as “Pete’s Super Submarines” in Bridgeport, Connecticut. At this time the average cost was 49-69 cents and on the first day the team sold 312 sandwiches. The two where known as the Dream Team, in 1966 they decided to open Doctor’s Association Inc....   [tags: Subway, Jared Fogle, Fast food, Menu]

Strong Essays
937 words (2.7 pages)

The Subway Sandwich Industry Essay

- Quiznos’s MMMMMMM….Toasty. Eat Fresh at Subway. These are two iconic slogans from sub franchises that are known the world over. Subway and Quizno’s have competed for more than thirty years. When one company has a promotion you can bet the other one isn’t to far behind. But what makes these two successful. It’s simple really, it’s marketing. Both companies are considered the top notch of sub shops when it comes to marketing. The question is however, who has the best marketing and subs to back it up....   [tags: Competition, Marketing, Quiznos, Subway]

Strong Essays
987 words (2.8 pages)

Essay about Human Condition As Explored Through Media

- The human condition is the concept which covers the emotions and struggles that man faces during their life. The element of human condition in the texts allows the reader to connect with the text creating another level of interactivity without viewing it at face value. Michael Gows’ play Away was written in 1986 and explores this issue through its array of allusions and thematic concerns. These concepts are further explored in the 2001 film Requiem for a dream which was directed by Darren Aronofsky and in the 2005 short story Chance Traveler by Haruki Murakami....   [tags: Human Condition]

Strong Essays
510 words (1.5 pages)

The Truth of the Air Essays

- ... Furthermore, soil and water are to some extent interchangeable with each other. They are both fundamental to the environment. Due to the fact that acid rain is acidic when it descends into a large body of water it then makes it acidic as well. The normal pH of lakes and streams for instance, is between six and eight and when acid rain merges with water it begins to lower its pH level (What Is Acid Rain). To retrieve its normal pH level is quite burdensome, but it can be obtained. The method of recouping its pH level is by a process of “buffering capacity” which requires soil to neutralize its pH levels (What Is Acid Rain)....   [tags: air quality, pollution ]

Strong Essays
1755 words (5 pages)

The History of Air North Essay

- The History of Air North When examining the major impact of an airline, one should take into account the airline’s history. Air North -the Yukon’s airline has been around for 36 years and dates back to the 1970’s. Air North is a regional based carrier that provides service within the Yukon (the westernmost and smallest of Canada’s three federal territories) between the Yukon and British Columbia, Alberta, Northwest Territories and Alaska (Fly Air North, 2013). These services also include scheduled passenger service, charter services for passenger and/or cargo and cargo and ground handling services (Fly Air North, 2013)....   [tags: airline, expansion, fleet]

Strong Essays
658 words (1.9 pages)

Essay about The History of Air Canda

- The History of Air Canada When examining the major impact of an airline, one should take into account the airline’s history. Air Canada is known as the largest airline of Canada. Air Canada provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo up to 178 destinations worldwide (Air Canada, 2013). It is known as the world's ninth largest passenger airline by a number of destinations, and is a founding member of the Star Alliance (Air Canada, 2013). Air Canada's largest hub is Toronto Pearson International Airport, located in Mississauga, Ontario....   [tags: airline, fleet, expansion]

Strong Essays
1187 words (3.4 pages)

China's Air Pollution Conundrum Essay

- Choking To Death: China’s Air Pollution Conundrum Long gone are the days when China is mostly rural with a population consisting of farmers. In the late 1970s, Deng Xiaoping loosened the controls on economic life, and began a period known as “reform and opening.” China has not looked back, and industries continue to develop and millions of people migrate to cities to work in one of the many factories. China is experiencing record-breaking economic expansion. They are one of the world’s largest manufacturers and exporters....   [tags: Economic Growth, China, Air Pollution, Rural]

Strong Essays
1760 words (5 pages)

Environmental Pollution: Change In The Air Essay

- Change In The Air Our understanding of atmospheric chemistry is the best it's ever been. And yet in our modern age of technology finding solidifying proof that carbon dioxide is the cause of global warming has yet to occur. We do not as of yet have enough solid evidence to say for certain that it is, nor is there the evidence to say it isn't. None the less discovering the truth about the matter and bringing us one step closer to how to handle it is only a matter of time. From the dawn of time mankind has recognized that air was more than just empty space, but material no different from liquids and solids....   [tags: Air Pollution Environment Nature Essays]

Strong Essays
1189 words (3.4 pages)

Franchising Subway Essay

- Franchising Subway Franchising has attracted some 34,000 people in the UK to invest in their future in self employment. Here are 15 reasons why franchises offer an attractive business opportunity. 1. Established brand value. Prior to launching a franchise, the franchisor has developed and established attractive and meaningful branding for the operation, and as the network of franchisees expands the national recognition of this brand grows. When a franchisee enters into a mature franchisee network, they will benefit from the national name recognition the brand has built when it comes to their own marketing initiatives, while even new launch franchises have invested in professionally designed...   [tags: Subway Business Franchising]

Strong Essays
1608 words (4.6 pages)

Air Pollution Essay

- Air pollution concentrations have been rapidly increasing in the major urban areas of Brazil caused mainly by the increasing use of vehicles. Policies to control car emissions in Brazil have relied basically on mandatory emission standards and subsidies for specific cleaner technology resulting in substantial decrease of car emission rates. Nevertheless, taxes on car sales, differentiated by vehicles' size and fuel, have also influenced car emission patterns. This paper analyses the compliance trend of the Brazilian fleet with environmental standards between 1992 and 1997....   [tags: Driving Air Pollution Emissions Global Warming]

Free Essays
1853 words (5.3 pages)