Polymeric nanoadsorbents such as dendrimers (repetitively branched molecules) are utilizable for removing organics and heavy metals. Organic compounds can be adsorbed by the interior hydrophobic shells, whereas heavy metals can be adsorbed by the tailored exterior branches. Diallo et a integrated dendrimers in an ultrafiltration device in order to remove copper from water. Nearly all copper ions were recovered by use of this combined dendrimer-ultrafiltration system. The adsorbent is regenerated simply through a pH shift. However, due to the complex multistage synthesis of dendrimers, up until now there are no commercial suppliers, except for some recently founded companies in the People’s Republic of China.
Zeolite has a very porous structure in which nanoparticles such as silver ions can be embedded. There they are released from the zeolite matrix by exchange with other cations in solution. Egger et a compared various materials containing nanosilver, including zeolites. A small amount of silver ions is released from the metallic surface when placed in contact with liquids.
Both CNTs and nanometals (see section on Nanometals and nanometal oxides) are highly effective nanoadsorbents for the removal of heavy metals such as arsenic. With regard to this application field, nanometals and zeolites benefit from their cost-e...
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...astewater processes. Another benefit of magnetic nanoparticles in terms of the removal and fate of nanoparticles in an aqueous environment is the fact that they can be simply recovered by applying a magnetic field.
Nano-zero valent ion as an alternative, nano-zero valent iron can be used for remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbon fluids and perchlorates. A suspension of nano-zero valent iron can be injected into the groundwater, allowing in situ treatment of the ground water. On the one hand, due to its high specific surface, nano-zero valent iron is much more reactive in comparison with conventional granular iron; on the other, as a result of its high reactivity, the life time of nano-zero valent iron is very low, so that further research work, for example, on surface modifications, is necessary for stabilization of these nanoparticles.
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