On the other hand, the model assumes five core characteristics of a job (Hackman & Oldham,1976, see Miner, 2007, p.56): a) skill variety that includes only the number of different skills that are challenging and important to the employee, b) task identity that reflects a sense of personal value of using the skills and abilities on behalf of the employees and a high visibility of the magnitude of the transformation process undergone to them, c) task significance that refers to the extent to which a job has an impact on the lives of other individuals either in the direct organizational context or in the external environment, d) autonomy that is an indicator of how responsible the individual is for his or her work and the resulted outcomes, and e) feedback on the level...
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...upon the mission statement and strategic goals of such an organization. Then the process of goal-setting goes down through the organization hierarchy to the individual employees. At this level, the goals should reflect the outcomes that are expected to contribute to achieving the strategic goals of the organization. In most cases, the individual goals are set against specific performance standards. Once the plan is set both employees and their supervisors cooperate to determine the challenges that prevent the achievement of the strategic goals that have been established earlier. There can be periodical meetings to discuss the employees’ progress and the necessary changes that can emerge due to organizational circumstances. At the next stage, the employees’ success at achieving the strategic goals is evaluated against performance standards (Griffin, & Moorhead, 2014).
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