The Ethics of Ambiguity is the book that inaugurated Beauvoir’s philosophy on existentialism. This book is a response to the people who expressed an unfavorable opinion of this philosophical theory. In just three chapters, Beauvoir examines some fundamental existential conditions and presents an ethics which she calls “ethics of ambiguity.” Beauvoir explains how individuals have this sense of ambiguity within themselves which makes them question the meaning of their lives. Philosophers have tried to mask this ambiguous dimension of existence by trying to reduce the mind to the body, for instance (Tuncel). However, to have an ethical life, this sense of ambiguity must be accepted. Beauvoir explains this with her description of the development of man. In The Ethics of Ambiguity, there are several direct and indirect references to Sartre considering he also delivered a famous lecture titled Exis...
... middle of paper ...
...flicts arise. Utilitarians such as Bentham and Mill did not necessarily criticize the relations of bourgeois society which Marx did. For instance, Bentham and Mill supported private property and the division of labor. Furthermore, they reasoned that several aspects of bourgeois society were considered unchangeable; hence, they were not subject to criticism. For Marx, this only revealed the conservative nature of utilitarianism considering their tendency to maintain the status quo. Marx would likely call Mill a capitalist reformer. Meanwhile, Mill believed in libertarian capitalism.
Marx can be considered a realist seeing that he believes in the historic process. While he disagrees with some aspects of utilitarianism, he believes we’ll eventually overcome suffering which he considers inevitable for happiness. This notion approaches utilitarianism a bit but not fully.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Is The Second Sex Beauvoir's Application of Sartrean Existentialism. ABSTRACT: Simone de Beauvoir's 1949 feminist masterpiece, The Second Sex, has traditionally been read as an application of Sartrean existentialism to the problem of women. Critics have claimed a Sartrean origin for Beauvoir's central theses: that under patriarchy woman is the Other, and that 'one is not born a woman, but becomes one.' An analysis of Beauvoir's recently discovered 1927 diary, written while she was a philosophy student at the Sorbonne, two years before her first meeting with Sartre, challenges this interpretation.... [tags: Beauvoir Feminist Feminism Essays]
3699 words (10.6 pages)
- As society has progressed from primitive customs to modern traditions, there have always been “truths” surrounding women. Simone de Beauvoir points out how the female is regarded as mysterious and is often associated with “truths” but in this case are really myths. The problem with the “truths” that society places on women is that somehow they contradict each other or are viewed as the absolute truth with no exceptions. In other words, if a woman does not act a certain way then she is no longer a women.... [tags: Feminism, Simone de Beauvoir, Existentialism]
1079 words (3.1 pages)
- Martha Nussbaum makes an important point when she suggests that literature is useful when it comes to understanding philosophy and philosophical concepts. In particular, Simone de Beauvoir’s All Men Are Mortal is useful in the way that Nussbaum describes because the treatment of existential concepts in the book allow the reader to gain insight into the life of a committed existentialist and into the desirability of this type of life. The book does so by being more accessible to readers and reaches a wider audience since it is not written using jargon like many dense philosophic writings.... [tags: Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre]
1647 words (4.7 pages)
- Existentialism is a philosophical idea which would inform ideologies and struggles during the post-war period following World War II. In depth explanations of existentialism are given by Jean-Paul Sartre in “Existentialism is a Humanism,” and Simone de Beauvoir’s “The Second Sex.” Sartre counters the incorrect popular definitions to formalize a concrete concept. Beauvoir places an emphasis on gender, existentialism in correlation to women. Both authors and their ideology formulated essential principles to society.... [tags: Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism]
1210 words (3.5 pages)
- Existentialism and its Reemergence in Postwar Europe Existentialism is a philosophical movement rooted in the work of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, who lived in the mid-1800s. The movement gained popularity in the mid-1900s thanks to the work of the French intellectuals Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus, including Sartre’s Being and Nothingness (1943). According to existentialists, life has no purpose, the universe is indifferent to human beings, and humans must look to their own actions to create meaning, if it is possible to create meaning at all.... [tags: Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre, Philosophy]
974 words (2.8 pages)
- Historically, power has been manifested hierarchically within the social training of genders. Simone De Beauvoir’s concept of ‘otherness’ has theorized how individuals’ personal manifestations of self are influenced deeply by their social position and the available power to them within these circumstances (2000:145). She remains one of the first to develop a feminist philosophy of women. In her book The Second Sex (1950), Beauvoir provides “a philosophical account of the development of patriarchal society and the condition of women within it” (Oliver, 1997:160).... [tags: Feminism, Sociology, Simone de Beauvoir]
1205 words (3.4 pages)
- Existentialism is a philosophical perspective that explains the idea behind human existence. This approach is based on the ideology that humans have the authorship over their destiny which is a reflection of one’s own experiences. Many writers and scholars have proposed a theory that each person has a life story filled with different experiences and personal growth. The connection between each individual is the fact that the knowledge of existence is always a part of the subconsciousness that can never be left alone despite the situation(s) a person may be facing in his or her own life.... [tags: Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre]
1697 words (4.8 pages)
- When Simone de Beauvoir died in Paris in 1986, the wreath of obituaries almost universally spoke of her as the 'mother' of contemporary feminism and its major twentieth century theoretician. De Beauvoir, it was implied as much as stated, was the mother-figure to generations of women, a symbol of all that they could be, and a powerful demonstration of a life of freedom and autonomy (Evans 1). This quotation by author Mary Evans effectively summarizes the powerful impact that Simone de Beauvoir had on both the evolution of feminism, and the literary world.... [tags: Beauvoir Feminism Essays]
2865 words (8.2 pages)
- ‘The most dangerous follower is he whose defection would destroy the whole party: that is to say, the best follower.’ – Friedrich Nietzsche Being recognizable and distinctive nowadays is something most individuals seek after. To become important or standing out in any community is not something today’s individuals have created or whatsoever. Ever since the twentieth century and even before, that belief and eagerness to prove your existence has been noticeably present. Not only between common people has this been there, also philosophers had sincerely thought about that humanly keenness to prove that one is different and essential, and tried to philosophically explain it.... [tags: Philosophy, Nietzsche, Socrates]
1066 words (3 pages)
- Feminism is the radical notion that women are people. It is the movement for the political, social, and educational equality of women with men. It has its roots in the humanism of the 18th century and the Industrial Revolution. Feminist issues range from access to employment, education, child care, contraception, and abortion, to equality in the workplace, changing family roles, damages for sexual harassment in the workplace, and the need for equal political representation. Some may think that in 2015 we may be completing the first step for women, which has been a long journey, the acceptance of women as people.... [tags: gender differences, 2015]
1828 words (5.2 pages)