There were two main engagements separated by 18 days: The Freeman’s Farm engagement was the first to occur on September 19, 1777 with both sides declaring a victory. The British held the field as night fall came, however they ended up losing about twice as many Soldiers as the Americans. The Bemis Heights engagement occurred on October 7, 1777 and was initiated by LTG Burgoyne as a gamble as his dwindling supplies were cut off. He concluded that reinforcements by Sir William Howe were never going to happen in time. The Americans won the second battle decisively and forced the British to retreat under the cover of darkness. Burgoyne began moving his Soldiers North the next day and managed only to get about 8 miles during very cold and rainy conditions with a beaten army.
During 1776 the British came up with a strategic plan that would cut off New England from the rest of America. The plan included moving a large force from Montreal South as the main effort moving along the Champlain valley and the Hudson River to Albany while a second smaller column advanced east from Lake as a supporting effort. “Burg...
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... enter the war effort that would turn the tide for the Americans. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 ended the war giving the US their freedom.
Americans learned from the Native Indians how to use cover and concealment effectively. Using the woods along with the greater effective range of Morgan’s Rifleman put the British Army at a great disadvantage. For the British, they over-extending their supply lines and underestimated their movements and obstacles along the Hudson; contributing to their defeat. Burgoyne’s Soldiers suffered from lack of rations and ammunition, causing many of his men to desert before the Second Battle of Saratoga.
Furneaux, Rupert (1971). The Battle of Saratoga. New York, NY: Stein and Day
Ketchum, R (1997). Saratoga. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.
Mintz, M (1990). The Generals of Saratoga. Yale University
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