Bacteria, Plant And Animal Cells Essay

Bacteria, Plant And Animal Cells Essay

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Opposite of bacteria, plant and animal cells divide using a process called mitosis. Mitosis begins after the same basics steps in plants and animals, but there are some exceptions. Also, mitochondria divide and are pass out to both daughter cells. In photosynthetic plant cells, chloroplasts must also divide and be given away to both daughter cells. Plant cells lack the structures found in animal cells that are called centrosomes, so the spindle fibers in plant cell mitosis proceed from a structure called the microtubule organizing center. Cytokinesis is also markedly different in plants and animals. In animal-cell cytokinesis, the cell is crushed in two by a reducing ring, while in plant cells a cell plate forms in the center of the cell and grows towards the perimeter, slowly dividing the cell in two.
During prophase I, while the chromatids are still draw out and thin, the homologous chromosomes come to lie lengthwise side by side. This process is called synapsis, which means fastening together. Metaphase I occurs when the tetrads align with part of the body. Both sister kinetochores of one duplicated chromosome are attached by spindle fibers to the same pole, and both sister kinetochores of the duplicated homologous chromosome are attached to the opposite pole.
During anaphase I, the paired homologous chromosomes separate, or disjoin, and move toward opposite poles. Each pole collects a random combination of maternal and protective chromosomes, but only one member of each homologous pair is present at each pole. The sister chromatids remain united at their centromere regions. Again, this differs from mitotic anaphase, in which the relative chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.
During telophase I, the chromatids gene...


... middle of paper ...


...c anaphase. As in mitosis, each former chromatid is now referred to as a chromosome.
Therefore, at telophase II there is one model for each homologous pair at each pole. Each is an unduplicated (single) chromosome. Nuclear envelopes then re- form, the chromosomes gradually extend to form chromatin fibers, and cytokinesis occurs. The two successive divisions of meiosis yield four haploid nuclei, each containing one of each kind of chromosome. Each resulting haploid cell has a different combination of genes. This genetic variation has two sources: First DNA segments are ex-changed between maternal and paternal homologues during crossing over. Second During meiosis, the maternal and paternal chromosomes of homologous pairs separate independently. The chromosomes are shuffled so that each member of a pair be-comes randomly distributed to one of the poles at anaphase I.

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