SKINNER: Verbal Behavior
According to Skinner the spoken language is one that not only facilitates communication it shows emotion, conveys ideas and can incite action (Diessner, 2008). Language can be considered active behavior since language can have physical effects on people, both the speaker and audience.
B. F. Skinner and his study of operate conditioning that is based on negative or positive responses to behavior has been extremely instrumental in the behavioral movement (Diessner, 2008). Many of us learn from our own experiences. For example, while I was in undergraduate study at Ball State, I started a grease fire in the kitchen and attempted to put it out. Unfortunately, I must have missed the lesson on how not to put a grease fire out with water. Diessner (2008) states that "verbal responses are classified as requests, commands, permissions, and so on, depending upon the reasons why the listener responds, the reasons often being attributed to the speaker's intentions or moods" (p.134). I witnessed this to be true as working as a social worker with individuals with developing disabilities, I encouraged our staff to make requests versus demands when wanting an individual to perform a given task. This behavior is not only respectful and polite, it often results in the individual to respond favorably.
Diessner (2008) states that "a concept is simply a feature of a set of contingencies which exist in the world, and it is discovered simply in the sense that the contingencies bring behavior under its control" (p.136). In the filed of substance abuse treatment, hearing a commercial, a song, or conversation about alcohol, may trigger or entice the alcoholic to begin to crave or obsess over a drink. Diessner (2008) continu...
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... are regarded as sacred and untouchable, emanating from adults and lasting forever. Towards to age 7-8 appears to desire for mutual understanding in the sphere of play. The children of third stages (7 to 10) do not yet know the rules in details. The child begins to think logically about the concrete objects, situations, categories, and principles in his life. Children of the fourth stages, on the contrary, have thoroughly mastered their their code. Finally, between years of 11 and 12, appears at fourth stages, which is that of the codification of rules (Diessner, 2008). The child begins to think logically about the concrete objects, situations, categories, and principles in his life. 12 through adulthood called the formal operations stage, children begin to break away from concrete objects and form their own opinions and their possible variations (Diessner, 2008).
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