A botnet is a collection of compromised hosts (bots) under control of a com-
mon Command & Control (C&C). The C&C is used by a remote controller
to issue commands to the different infected hosts. A botnet may have several
purposes, the most common include Denial-of-Servoice (DoS) attacks, identity
theft, proxy, spreading of malware and spamming. Traditional ways to disrupt
such networks, such as Domain Name System Blacklists (DNSBL’s) or firewalls,
rely on the knowledge of the Internet address of the C&C.
Domain Name System (DNS) is of paramount importance in the operation
of internet. It is responsible for translating human-friendly hostnames into IP
addresses. Botmasters make use of domain names to manage their distributed
network of bots. Furthermore, they take advantage of DNS agility (ability to
quickly change the IP address associated to a domain name) to hide and frustrate
detection of their C&C. Such techniques include DGA , Fast-Flux .
As aforementioned, attackers have been able to avoid the deployed detection/prevention
mechanisms by continously update the IP address of their C&C. This makes the
disruption of the botnet more difficult. In addition, techniques like Fast-Flux
or DGA take advantage of the fact that DNS services do not keep the history
of the DNS requests, DNS data only contains the current value of each domain
name, making the identification of the botnet C&C even more difficult .
Passive DNS  comes to help in this case, by storing all DNS answers that
goes through a deployed sensor into a database and allowing queries over that
data. Moreover, Passive DNS allows one to correlate DNS data over time, being
possible to analyze the migration pattern of the botnet, ...
... middle of paper ...
ley, CA, USA, 2012. USENIX Association.
 M. Bailey, E. Cooke, F. Jahanian, Yunjing Xu, and M. Karir. A survey
of botnet technology and defenses. In Conference For Homeland Security,
2009. CATCH ’09. Cybersecurity Applications Technology, pages 299–304,
 Maryam Feily, Alireza Shahrestani, and Sureswaran Ramadass. A survey of
botnet and botnet detection. In Proceedings of the 2009 Third International
Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies,
SECURWARE ’09, pages 268–273. IEEE Computer Society, 2009.
 D.K. McGrath, A. Kalafut, and M. Gupta. Phishing infrastructure fluxes
all the way. Security Privacy, IEEE, 7(5):21–28, 2009.
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