Autism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd ) Essay

Autism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd ) Essay

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of a very complex brain disorder which affects different areas of the brain. It is characterized by abnormal social interactions, varied problems with communication, and restricted or repetitive patterns of behavior which are classified in both severity and character. Autism occurs in all different socioeconomic and ethnic groups and can affect all age groups. It is estimated that 1 out of 88 children will be diagnosed with some type of autism spectrum disorder by the age of 8, with males being 4 times more likely to some type of autism spectrum disorder than females.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM-5) there is one single category for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Under this diagnosis are the individual disorders that relate to ASD. Autistic disorder or autism is a social interaction and communication problems as well as isolated imaginative play in children younger than 3 years old. Asperger’s syndrome is children without a language problem who tend to score average or above in intelligence tests but have the same limited interests and social problems as children who are autistic. Pervasive developmental disorder or PDD is also known as atypical autism. These children have many of the autistic behaviors but do not fit into all of the categories. Rett syndrome usually affects girls who start developing normally and begin to lose their social and communication skills around age 4, they also exhibit signs of repetitive hand movements and are severely cognitively impaired.
It is uncertain what causes ASD but it is likely that both genetics and environment play a role. Researchers have identified a number of genes associa...


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...l function and reach his or her potential. Behavioral training and management uses positive reinforcement, social skills training, and self-help to improve communication and behavior. Providing speech, occupational, and physical therapy are important for managing autism and should be included in the child’s treatment program. Speech therapy can help improve social and language skills to help them communicate more effectively. Occupational and physical therapy may help a child with autism to learn to process the senses (sound, hearing, smell, touch and sight) in a way that they can manage them. Medications may be prescribed to treat some of the related conditions and problem behaviors such as anxiety, depression, seizures, OCD and hyperactivity. There are many support groups for parents, family members and the autistic children that can provide support and training.

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