“Since we see that every city-state is a sort of community and that every community is established for the sake of some good…it is clear that every community aims at some good, and the community which has the most authority of all and includes all the others aims highest, that is, at the good with the most authority. This is what is called the city-state or political community.” [I.1.1252a1–7](added emphasis)
He further states that the city-state comes into being for the sake of life but exists for the sake of the good life. The idea that good life or happiness is the proper end of the city-state recurs throughout the Politics (Book III & VII)
The existence of the city-state (polis) requires an efficient ruler. A community of any sort can possess order only if it has a ruling element or authority. This ruling principle is defined by the constitution, which sets criteria for political offices, particularly the sovereign office. Aristotle defines the constitution as “a certain ordering of the inhabitants of the city-state” (III.1.1274b32-41). It is not a written document, but an immanent organizing principle, analogous to the soul of an organism. Hence, the constitution is also “the way of life” of the citizens (IV.11.1295a40-b1, VII.8.1328b1-2). Here the citizens are that minority of the resident population who possess full political rights (III.1.1275b17–20). Once the constitution is in place, the politician needs to take the appropriate measures to maintain it, to introduce reforms when he finds them necessary,...
... middle of paper ...
...ilosophy Ed.Edward N. Zalta. Spring 2013. Web. 06 Nov. 2013
Loewenberg, J. "The Comic Spirit." The North American Review April 225.842 (1928): 485-91. Print.
Miller, Fred. "Aristotle's Political Theory". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. Fall 2012. Web 06 Nov 2013.
Robinson, Andrew. "In Theory Bakhtin: Carnival against Capital, Carnival against Power." Ceasefire Magazine RSS. 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 07 Nov. 2013
Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night, Or, What You Will. Ed. Keir Elam. London: Arden Shakespeare, 2008. Print.
Sophocles. "King Oedipus." The Theban Plays. Trans. E.F. Watling. Baltimore: Penguin, 1947. Print.
Welsford, Enid. The Fool; His Social and Literary History. Gloucester, MA: P. Smith, 1966. Print.
Wiles, David. Shakespeare's Clown Actor and Text in the Elizabethan Playhouse. Cambridge [etc.: Cambridge UP, 1987. Print.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Authority cannot exist without obedience. Society is built on this small, but important concept. Without authority and its required obedience, there would only be anarchy and chaos. But how much is too much, or too little. There is a fine line between following blindly and irrational refusal to obey those in a meaningful position of authority. Obedience to authority is a real and powerful force that should be understood and respected in order to handle each situation in the best possible manner.... [tags: Authority]
1815 words (5.2 pages)
- William Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night, which is commonly believed to criticize society’s romanticized idea of love, demonstrates that even though love may seem unachievable, it is still possible to find it even in the most unlikely places. Shakespeare illustrates this idea in Twelfth Night through the characters Antonio and Sebastian by subtly suggesting that Antonio and Sebastian are more than just friends. It is Sebastian’s physical beauty that attracts Antonio to him, which leads him to devote himself to Sebastian as a sign of love.... [tags: Shakespeare, Twelfth Night]
978 words (2.8 pages)
- Examining Viola's Character in Twelfth Night "I may not be a lion, but I am a lion's cub, and I have a lion's heart" . These words are said by one of the most celebrated and authoritative women in the 16th century Elizabeth I. Even though the authority was at woman's hands at that time, a dominant woman was unnatural in the society itself. The presence of such a powerful female figure creates an interesting situation for dramatists and playwrights in terms of depicting women's status at that time.... [tags: Character Analysis, Authority]
836 words (2.4 pages)
- Plethora of Fools in Twelfth Night Folly is one of the main weaknesses in Twelfth Night with a number of characters portraying their own strange foolish ways. Feste is the professional fool; he is the most noticeable fool and is very quickly recognised by the audience as an intelligent man. Orsino and Olivia are really foolish because of the decisions they make but they are regarded as intelligent. The biggest fool of all is Olivia's steward, Malvolio. Feste was obviously the most noticeable fool.... [tags: Twelfth Night essays]
703 words (2 pages)
- Feste, the fool character in Twelfth Night, in many ways represents a playwright figure, and embodies the reach and tools of the theater. He criticizes, manipulates and entertains the other characters while causing them to reflect on their life situations, which is similar to the way a playwright such as Shakespeare interacts with his audience. Furthermore, more so than the other characters in the play he accomplishes this in a highly performative way, involving song and clever wordplay that must be decoded, and is thus particularly reflective of the mechanisms at the command of the playwright.... [tags: Twelfth Night Essays]
2845 words (8.1 pages)
- The Fools of Twelfth Night It is not unusual that the fool should be a prominent figure and make an important contribution in forming the confusion and the humor in an Elizabethan drama. In William Shakespeare's comedy, Twelfth Night, Feste the clown is not the only fool who is subject to foolery. He and many other characters combine their silly acts and wits to invade other characters that either escape reality or live a dream. In Twelfth Night, Feste, Maria and Sir Toby are the fools that make the comedy work in many senses.... [tags: Twelfth Night Essays]
1086 words (3.1 pages)
- The Foolishness in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night William Shakespeare used a unique device to explain how foolishness is an unavoidable part of everyday life. He employed many specific examples of foolishness in his comedy titled Twelfth Night. Each of the characters he created were all foolish in one way or another. Not only do the characters entertain the audience, but also educate the audience as they portray mankind avoiding obvious truth. Shakespeare takes a humorous approach to expose the ways we fall prey to pride, vanity and self-deception. As the story unfolds, the characters discover their faults before they can do any real harm to themselves... [tags: Twelfth Night essays]
1033 words (3 pages)
- As in most comedies, William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night extensively uses disguises, masks and mistaken identities to add to the comical nature of the play. Viola's disguise as Orsino's page, Cesario, becomes crucial to the action in the play. Without this important element, the action in the play would slow down dramatically, making the story much less intriguing. In addition to making the play less interesting, the disguise is also necessary to develop the storyline involving Sebastian, and the confusion that his return creates.... [tags: Twelfth Night essays]
487 words (1.4 pages)
- Beyond Seriousness to Wisdom in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems preoccupied with madness and folly in Twelfth Night. The word "fool" and its variants ("foolery," "foolish," and so forth) appear eighty times in the play, and the word "folly" occurs seven times. There are, in addition, other means of indicating foolishness such as Maria's "Now, sir, thought is free" (1.3.67). As Feste suggests, "Foolery ... does walk about the orb like the sun; it shines everywhere" (3.1.39-40). Robert Armin, who originated the role of Feste, was fascinated by fools and wrote Foole upon Foole, a book which treated this subject.... [tags: Twelfth Night essays]
2734 words (7.8 pages)
- Authority is a basic element in the structure of social life. It is more or less effective in any human interrelation. It is functional in a spectrum from a small group of individuals to a whole population of a society. Some aspect of authority is a requirement of all communal living, and it is only the individual dwelling in isolation that is not forced to respond, with defiance or obedience, to the commands of hierarchy. In a general view, authority couples with obedience and both of them seem to be two components of one package.... [tags: Analysis Social Structure Authority]
1503 words (4.3 pages)