“I found Rome built of bricks; I leave her clothed in marble.” - Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (cliojournal.wikispaces.com)
Augustus, born Gaius Octavius, also known Augustus Caesar or Octavian, or by his adopted name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, is one the Rome’s most iconic emperors. Born on September 23 in the year 63 B.C., and the great-nephew of Julius Caesar, Augustus ascended to the throne after Caesar’s assassination, he was only nineteen years old.
To secure his rule of Rome, Augustus formed an alliance with the successful and ambitious general Marc Anthony and Lepidus and with them created the Second Triumvirate to hunt down and defeat Brutus and Cassius, the assassins that killed Caesar (Heritage History, n.d.). It took several years and two of the bloodiest battles in Roman history for them to defeat their enemies. After the battles were over Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus split the spoils, with Augustus taking Rome, Anthony took the Middle East, which included Egypt, and Lepidus taking Africa (PBS.n.d.).
Anthony becomes the lover of Cleopatra, and with their bond, become a threat to the power of Rome. Anthony had fallen out of favor with the Roman people because of his behavior with Cleopatra. Augustus used this public opinion as a pretext to go to war. War ensues between Rome and Egypt, with Augustus eventually defeating Anthony at the Battle of Actium. With his defeat, Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide, rather than becoming examples of Augustus’ rule. The empire of Rome now includes Egypt and at the age of 32.
After the war ended, Augustus took the opportunity to gain more power and ended the republic, and replaced it with an empire, becoming the undisputed ruler of Rome. To en...
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.... Retrieved February 26, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/43047/Augustus
Heritage History | Homeschool History Curriculum | by. (n.d.). Heritage History | Homeschool History Curriculum | by. Retrieved February 26, 2014, from http://www.heritage-history.com/?c=read&author=guerber&book=romans&story=triumvirate
Kagan, N. (2006). National Geographic concise history of the world: an illustrated timeline. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Nagle, D. B. (2010). The ancient world: a social and cultural history (7th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
The Achievements of Augustus Caesar. (n.d.). The Achievements of Augustus Caesar. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://janusquirinus.org/essays/Augustus1.html
The Roman Empire in the First Century. (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved February 27, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/augustus.html
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