Biologic, psychosocial and genetic factors contribute to the development of ADHD. Suspected but not confirmed biologic factors include food additives and certain diets, lead contamination, maternal smoking during pregnancy, alcohol exposure and being born premature (Spencer). Of the potential biologic factors, fetal alcohol syndrome has been shown most closely related with ADHD (Sykora). Psychosocial problems, while they are associated with ADHD are considered to be more of triggers rather than direct causes of the disorder. These problems include family conflicts, disorganized family structure, and psychopathology in the parents (Spencer). According to Lange, central nervous system trauma, infection or difficulties during the neonatal stage can contribute to the diagnosis (Goldson, and Renolds 91-3). The most likely explanation for the develop...
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...certain tasks. Family therapy and support group referrals are beneficial in helping families adjust to the disorder and make necessary lifestyle modifications to provide the best environment for their child (Sykora).
Goldson M.D., Edward, and Ann Renolds M.D. "Chapter 2: Child Development and Behavior." Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 19. McGraw-Hill Companies, 2009. Print.
Spencer Thomas, "Chapter 35. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (Chapter). Ebert MH, Loosen PT, Nurcombe B, Leckman JF: CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry, 2e: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3290305.
Sykora William S, "Chapter 8. Disruptive Behavioral Disorders in Children" (Chapter). South-Paul JE, Matheny SC, Lewis EL: CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Family Medicine, 2e: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3032472.
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