Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) And Low Birth Weight

Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) And Low Birth Weight

Length: 1001 words (2.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Low Birth Weight
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by developmentally inappropriate and impairing difficulties with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). ADHD is associated with long-term functional impairments, such as impaired physical and mental health and leads to considerable costs for families and society (Gjervan, Torgersen, Nordahl, & Rasmussen, 2012.) ADHD affects around 5%–10% of school-aged children worldwide (Hechtman, 2011). Low birth weight has been recognized as a risk factor that is associated with the development of ADHD (Nigg & Breslau, 2007). Recent etiological investigation has focused on associations between prenatal and perinatal risk as well as sibling differences in low birth weight status as a predictive measure of ADHD symptomology. This paper will examine the association of low birth rate and the development of ADHD.
Studies primarily focused on children (ages 6-19) and adolescence with ADHD. One longitudinal study chose to follow children of low birth weight into adulthood. Majority of individuals were preterm (gestational age < 2500 g), very low (<1000 g) birth weight (World Health Organization, 2004). Further, all studies included large study samples and included no less than 100 participants.
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder; this means that it impairs the growth and development of the brain and has an early onset and persistent course (Mash &Wolfe, 2016). Researchers have hypothesized that a low birth weight that restricts fetal growth that may not provide sufficient energy supply for brain development. Lack of development t...


... middle of paper ...


...ling differences in low birth weight status to predict sibling differences in ADHD symptomatology. The study included participants from 80 high schools and 52 junior high schools. Participants were genotyped on a small number of genetic markers relevant to the prediction of ADHD symptomatology. Participants were also evaluated using the self-reported, childhood ADHD symptom scale that measures inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive characteristics of ADHD. Data on the birth weight of all participants was also collected. Researchers found that sibling differences in low birth weight predicted sibling differences in ADHD symptomology in childhood. Additionally, researchers found that sibling differences in individual dopaminergic genes did not significantly predicted sibling differences in ADHD symptomatology. They found “no evidence of direct genetic effects on ADHD”.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay Adhd Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- Attention- Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder Attention –Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a growing disorder in the United States of America especially among school children. . According to the neurological research in 2016, in the USA, children who are diagnosed with ADHD reached 11% for age between 4-17 years old and 3-5 % among adult. Although some people argue that the high incidence of the disorder could be due to the definition of the disorder used by the country. In USA, the schools use the D.S.M definition, which is the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
1673 words (4.8 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adha ) Essay

- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHA) is a behavioural disorder. ADHD is not an illness neither is it a sign of low intelligence. A child that suffers from ADHA can lead a very normal life so long as they have the right understanding, care and medical treatment (Victorian State Government, 2016). Children with ADHD suffer from three main problems. These problems are: Inattention, impulsivity and overactivity. Inattention is having difficulty with their concentration, forgetting instruction and also moving from one task to another without completing anything from the other tasks (Victorian State Government, 2016)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
1202 words (3.4 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- According to The Center for Disease Control and Prevention Attention Deficit hyperactive disorder also known as ADHD is considered to be one of the most common childhood disorders and was found in eleven percent of children in the United States as of 2011. Before Robert was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder my family and I had a very cloudy idea of what Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was like. According to The Center for Disease Control and Prevention Attention Deficit hyperactive disorder is considered to be one of the most common childhood disorders and was found in eleven percent of children in the United States as of 2011 yet a lot of people are unaware o...   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
2241 words (6.4 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- ADHD in Children Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder that most often occurs in children. 6.4 million American children, ages 4-17, have been diagnosed with ADHD. (Holland and Riley) Since the 1970’s there have been controversies based on the assumption, that ADHD is not a real condition. Some people around the world will argue that a diagnosis for adhd is unruly and the child is just defiant. ADHD is a real disorder that requires treatment. In the DSM-5, ADHD is classified as clinicians and psychiatrists to diagnose psychiatric illnesses use a The DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
794 words (2.3 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- Envision not being able to sit still in class, remember any information from that day or being told you don’t have a problem. However, nowadays several children suffer from both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Furthermore, studies have revealed that Ritalin, a central nervous system stimulant, has effective characteristics for controlling symptoms of both ADHD and ADD. Ritalin happens to be an extremely effective medication for ADHD nevertheless, with high abuse potential parental guardians must recognize the benefits in addition to both helpful and harmful side-effects....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
2210 words (6.3 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay examples

- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is also known by its abbreviated name ADHD. ADHD is a neurological disorder that progresses during childhood and can continue into adulthood. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention approximately 11% of children 4-17 years of age have been diagnosed with ADHD as of 2011.Characteristics of ADHD can be divided into three categories known as impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. ADHD produces symptoms that are characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, poor impulse control, and forgetfulness....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
876 words (2.5 pages)

Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )

- In today’s society, people utilize Ritalin in an effective way, nevertheless like any other drug when taken incorrectly there are many symptoms and possibility for potential abuse. Ritalin in classified as a Schedule II drug, that being said, it has a high potential for abuse, but is approved for medical uses and prescribed by a doctor. The generic name for Ritalin is methylphenidate, a central nervous system stimulant, generally taken to treat those with ADD, ADHD, and narcolepsy (“Ritalin: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects & Warnings,” n.d.)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
2119 words (6.1 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- The Truth about ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has become a common disorder that affects children and adults in all areas of their daily lives. In the United States, there are at least three million cases of school-aged children that have been diagnosed with ADHD and are using pharmaceutical medications (Haber 113). This intriguing fact has led some doctors to believe there may be other causes to ADHD, a cause that can be treated with counseling or therapy instead of pharmaceutical medications....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
1203 words (3.4 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects eight to twelve percent of children worldwide, with symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Biederman & Faraone, 2005; Arnett, Pennington, Willcutt, Defries, & Olsen, 2015). Often these children with ADHD are seen as noisy, disruptive, and restless because they have difficulty concentrating, short attention spans, and avoid tasks that demand prolonged concentration. Problems with inattention and hyperactivity make organizing tasks, including school work and workplace responsibilities difficult (Choi, Han, Kang, Jung, & Renshaw, 2015)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
1319 words (3.8 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay

- Psychological disorders are significant dysfunctions in an individual’s cognitions, emotions, or behaviors” (Myers 2014). One such disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is defined as a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. (Myers 2014). The cause of ADHD is not clear, but research has shown that it is a combination of environmental factors and genes play a large role (Berger2014)....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Better Essays
1304 words (3.7 pages)