College can be a demanding time for anyone, but for students contending with mental disabilities the endeavor can seem impossible. Psychology Today estimates that more than 10% of college students qualify for some neurological disorder. Two of the most prevalent psychological disorders affecting students today are Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety (Psychology Today). In this paper I examine the effects of both neurological disorders and the correlation in between the two in the human body.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a chronic neurobehavioral condition that occurs in millions of people on a wide spectrum of severity characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction (2). It causes hyperactivity, impulse control issues, and an inability to pay attention (source). While the cause of ADHD is still intensely debated by scientists, molecular genetic studies show evidence that a genetic predisposition to the disorder could be caused by dysregulation of neurotransmitter symptoms (3). Additionally, though scientists previously understood ADHD as a disorder exclusively found in the frontostriatal region of the brain, new neuroimaging studies have indicated that the condition is present in the cerebellum, the orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, the superior parietal regions, the thalamus, and the caudate nucleus (2). The new studies significantly expand the scientific community’s understanding of ADHD because while little is known about the frontostriatal region, other than the fact that it is responsible for motor, cognitive, and behavioral functions; extensive information about the the additional areas where ADHD is found could allow scientists to specifically tar...
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... presumably do not need external assistance in managing challenges, the University of Pennsylvania conceived a cognitive-behavioral therapy program that combines traditional cognitive therapy with specific activities to combat detrimental thoughts while building positive skillsets (CDC). Two medications have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration; methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Both medications improve the brain’s ability to make temporal distinctions by focusing on the underactivity that has been shown in the brains of people with ADHD (ScienceDaily). Atomoxetine inhibits the norepinephrine transporter exclusively, and Methylphenidate inhibits both norepinephrine and dopamine transporters; obstructing the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter, causing bigger concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in the synaptic cleft.
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