Way back in 1965, technologist Herbert Simon stated that, “Machines will be capable, within 20 years, of doing any work a man can do” (Vardi, 2012). Nearly fifty years later, this world has been impacted by artificial intelligence (AI) equipped technologies in major ways. The threat of AI equipped computer systems and machinery taking jobs away from humans is becoming a harsh reality (Vardi, 2012). As with every innovative technology there are positive and negative externalities involved.
This paper will: define AI, discuss positives and negatives involved with implementing AI systems, explore several types of different ways AI equipped systems are tested, and venture into the current stage of AI systems primarily IBM’s Watson project.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) Defined
Artificial intelligence (AI) can simply be defined as “the application of human intelligence to computers” (Shelly & Vermaat 2010). John McCarthy, a professor at Stanford University in the Computer Science Department describes AI as, “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. The similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable” (McCarthy 2007).
The book Management Information Systems, written by Kenneth Laudon and Jane Laudon (2012) describes AI as, “technology, which consists of computer-based systems (both hardware and software) that attempt to emulate human behavior” (Laudon & Laudon, 2012, p. 457). These systems can, “learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise and decision making” (Laudon & Laudon, 2012, p. 457). Essentially...
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Putting the ' Smarts' into the Smart Grid: A Grand Challenge for Artificial Intelligence. (2012). Communications of the ACM, 55(4), 86-97. doi:10.1145/2133806.2133825
Shelly, G & Vermaat, M. (2010). Discovering Computers 2010. Boston, MA: Course Technology.
Shieber, S. M. (2007). The Turing Test as Interactive Proof. Nous, 41(4), 686-713. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0068.2007.00636.x
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