Source 1 – Artificial Intelligence by Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig
Summary- This book expert describes the fundamentals, history, and changes associated with Artificial Intelligence from 1950’s onward. The book provides a basic explanation that Artificial Intelligence involves simulating human behavior or performance using encoded thought processes and reasoning with electronic free standing components that do mechanical work.
1. Philosophers in 400 B.C saw the human mind as a sort of machine, and believed it operated through encoded knowledge that decided which actions to take. Mathematicians since then developed complex logic and mathematical systems to determine decision-making pathways. From Charles Babbage’s basic adding machines through to complex computing systems of modern day have formed the basis for complex computational problem solving. Psychologists in the last one hundred years have further developed models of the mind that describe information processing models and linguistic biases that have progressed the effectiveness and scope of artificial intelligence. In the early 1940’s The Turing Test was the first major development in providing a definition of intelligence, which states that for a computer to pass this test, a human must interrogate a computer and the computer must fool the human interrogator to believe the computer answering the questions was actually a human. The Decision theory in 1944 presented by John Von Neumann provided a framework in which an electronic system could make complex decision. By categorizing artificial intelligence as completing actions in a similar way to humans, Artificial Intelligence since then resembled a human and attempts to operate autonomously as one. From the develop...
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2. In the early 1900’s robots were a popular topic of science fiction and pop culture, but when Karel Capek wrote the play “Rossume’s Universal Robots” transitioned robots into the national spotlight. Robots became synonymous with laborer or servant and only became more popular when Issac Asimov published short stories about robots in 1938 and 1942. He stated the three basic governing laws that robots can injure humans, must obey humans unless it conflicts with law one, and must protect itself unless conflicting with the previous two laws. Since then robots have been depicted as mans friend in Star Wars and enemy in iRobot or the Terminator movies. The industry continued to explode as the growth of computer engineering and understanding of the human mind advanced and worked more efficiently together to create robots that could help resemble humans.
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