Skepticism questions the notion whether certain knowledge is possible; it is the opposition of philosophical dogmatism, which holds the assertion and authority of a set of statements to be true. Descartes states the following on skepticism:
To have knowledge, we need to be able to tell the difference between hallucination (deception) and a perception (where there us no relevant difference, no epistemological distinction can be made). It is impossible to distinguish between a hallucination (or deception) and a normal perception. Therefore we do not know whether any of our perceptual beliefs are true. (Pojman, 200)
Skepticism refers to two positions, knowledge and justification. There are two different classes of kn...
... middle of paper ...
...e, and P. H. Nidditch. "Of the Origin of Our Ideas." A Treatise of Human Nature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978. N. pag. Print.
Hume, David, L. A. Selby-Bigge, P. H. Nidditch, and David Hume. Enquiries concerning Human Understanding and concerning the Principles of Morals. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975. Print.
Pojman, Louis P. "Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding." Philosophical Traditions: A Text with Readings. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 1998. 205. Print.
Pojman, Louis P. "Do We Have Knowledge of the External World?" Philosophical Traditions: A Text with Readings. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 1998. 208. Print.
Moore, G. E. "Proof of the External World." 2005. Philosophical Papers. London: Allen and Unwin, 1959. 145-46. Print.
Malcolm, Norman. "Knowledge and Belief." 2005. Knowledge and Certainty: Essays and Lectures. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1975. 274-77. Print.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Skepticism and the Philosophy of Language in Early Modern Thought ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the importance of skeptical arguments for the philosophy of language in early modern thought. It contrasts the rationalist conception of language and knowledge with that of philosophers who adopt some sort of skeptical position, maintaining that these philosophers end up by giving language a greater importance than rationalists. The criticism of the rationalists' appeal to natural light is examined, as well as skeptical arguments limiting knowledge such as the so-called 'maker's knowledge' argument.... [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
3311 words (9.5 pages)
- Mackie?s Arguments Against Objective Values J. L. Mackie makes his position explicit by opening his article "The Subjectivity of Values" with this terse statement: "There are no objective values." Mackie had found recent dialogue in moral philosophy to be fraught with misunderstandings and conflations of various moral positions, so he felt it necessary to rigorously define his position as well as the boundaries of his concerns. Thus his article has two major parts: First, Mackie defines the nature of his moral skepticism, and, second, he defends his position by showing the implausibility of moral realism with a series of arguments.... [tags: Philosophy J. L. Mackie]
1686 words (4.8 pages)
- A View on Perspectivism Perspectivism is the doctrine that most or all large philosophical questions have many proposed answers, and many views on how to judge between those proposed answers, and that intelligent people of good will are likely to continue to have differing perspectives on these large questions of philosophy indefinitely. There are both historical and theoretical reasons for embracing this view. Historically, it is manifest that though philosophers have often attained views which are highly satisfying to themselves personally, few perspectives have won a con sensus even in their own times, and none have won a consensus over time.... [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
3387 words (9.7 pages)
- Since the idea of truth came to being by the previous thought of ancient times, many philosophers have developed their ideas on this notion. They ask themselves questions such as: “What is truth. Does a universal truth exist. Are their countless truths. Is it possible to know?” This is a major debate amongst philosophers and it really separates them within their belief systems. Many names have been given to the different thoughts: Relativism, Skepticism, Dogmatism, and Perspectivism. These thoughts are just a few major classifications from some of the great thinkers on truth.... [tags: what is truth, perspectivism, relativism]
3406 words (9.7 pages)
- ... He adds that if in each belief there is doubt that we can conclude that all things that we believe can be considered false knowledge. He seeks to prove this by setting a precondition that we cannot critique all beliefs, just the ones that govern our life or that serve as a broad component of belief. Descartes then provides context to where beliefs come from and states that beliefs are created from senses or through senses. He then states that senses are false because they are deceptive and shouldn’t be trusted which is the first cause of being able to doubt a belief.... [tags: philosophical analysis]
1682 words (4.8 pages)
- Zeno was one of the most wise ancient philosophers. Zeno used a paradoxical approach to represent his intriguing arguments. Some of his most famous antinomies are against plurality and motion. Zeno’s arguments were preserved by Aristotle in the context of his own discussion. Zeno made 4 arguments related to motion, namely- The dichotomy argument, the achilles, the arrow and the moving rows arguments. The argument that will be given emphasis in this essay is the arrow argument related to motion. In this arrow argument, he asks us to imagine a flying arrow and shows through the example of this arrow how nothing is in motion.... [tags: philosophy, motion]
916 words (2.6 pages)
- The Arguments Against the Arguing Atheism Argument If this was an essay on English grammar, alliteration would be the culpable culprit. The empiricist’s notions of ‘knowledge’ --i.e. what can be known and how—and by whom, or rather, from what perspective/view/vantage— veer away from metaphorical language as aversions either from logic or rational observation within space and time; any argument based outside the data is therefore absent relevant meaning. It would seem that many atheistic notions prevalent in general western industrialized societies, while rarely comprising any orthodox, organized or consistent set of rules, are nonetheless increasingly pervading the culture, and in some r... [tags: Atheism, God, Human, Theism]
1579 words (4.5 pages)
- Evolutionary Ethics ABSTRACT: Michael Ruse has argued that evolutionary ethics discredits the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Ruse must employ dubitable assumptions, however, to reach his conclusion. We can trace these assumptions to G. E. Moore. Also, part of Ruse’s case against the foundations of ethics can support the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Cooperative activity geared toward human flourishing helps point the way to a naturalistic moral realism and not exclusively to ethical skepticism as Ruse supposes.... [tags: Morals Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
2436 words (7 pages)
- Skepticism Skepticism is the Western philosophical tradition that maintains that human beings can never arrive at any kind of certain knowledge. Originating in Greece in the middle of the fourth century BC, skepticism and its derivatives are based on the following principles: There is no such thing as certainty in human knowledge. All human knowledge is only probably true, that is, true most of the time, or not true. Several non-Western cultures have skeptical traditions, particularly Buddhist philosophy, but properly speaking, skepticism refers only to a Greek philosophical tradition and its Greek, Roman, and European derivatives.... [tags: Skeptic philosophy philosophers]
1132 words (3.2 pages)
- Skepticism You believe something, but you don't know it. So do you really know anything. Some believe the answer lies within the arguments of skepticism. I start by analyzing the argument from perspective. Do you believe that what you see is what it is. Let's say you and I are sitting on the couch looking at a picture on the wall. We both have different opinions of what we are looking at. And there's more to the picture than what we really see. Many factors impel us to have different opinions.... [tags: Papers]
477 words (1.4 pages)