Are We on the Cusp of the Sixth Mass Extinction Event? Essay

Are We on the Cusp of the Sixth Mass Extinction Event? Essay

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As titled: Are We On The Cusp Of The Sixth Mass Extinction Event? Yes, we are indeed, as we, here defined as all the lives on the Earth at the moment. Mass extinction is times when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short interval (Barnosky et al., 2011). In addition, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences edited by Michael Allaby (2013), mass extinction is defined as the Earth has been taken place environmental catastrophe, removes many groups from environment from record and not replaced, and ecosystems collapse. Eventually new forms appear and evolution resumes.

Current extinction
Throughout the decades, biologists and paleobiologists investigated on the presence of the current living species and they found extinction of species, which this can be a supporting evidence of the sixth mass extinction in terms of species extinction as stated in definition. There are reports of extinct species such as the Dodo Birds, Falkland Island wolves, Caribbean Monk Seal, which faced threats such as killing for skin and oil, over-hunting of the animal resources and removal of land and habitats due to human activities (IUCN, 2001). The number of extinct species is keep growing throughout the centuries.
At present, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), there are 12% of all known birds, 30% of all known amphibians and 21% of all known mammals are regarded as at risk of extinction—Threatened (IUCN, 2001), including Kiwi Birds, Polar Bears and Chinese White Dolphins. These threatened species—mammals, reptiles, amphibians or even plants, are scattered over the world, mostly in the tropics, South America and Sub-Saharan Africa, which regarded as t...


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...estimated 96% of species (Barnosky, A. D., 2011).



References
Allaby, M. (ed) (2013), A Dictionary of Geology & Earth Sciences, 4th Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Barnosky, A.D.; Matzke, N.; Tomiya, S.; Wogan, G. O. U.; Swartz, B; Quental, T. B; Marshall, C.; McGuire, J. L.; Lindsey, E. L.; Maguire, K. C; Mersey, B.; Ferrer, E. A.. (2011), Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? , Nature, [online], Vol 471: 51-57

Feulner, G. (2009), Climate Modelling of Mass-Extinction Events: Review, Int. J. Astrobiology, 8 :207-212.

Jenkins, M. (2003), Prospect for Biodiversity, Science, 302: 1175-1177

Unknown (2003), Stage set for sixth mass extinction of animals, Science, 331:

Haamble, C; Henderson. M. R (2011), Extinction rates, extinction-prone habitats, and indicator groups in Britain and at large scales, Biological Conservation, 144: 713-721

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Are We on the Cusp of the Sixth Mass Extinction Event? Essay

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