The concept of third wave of democratisation was introduced by Professor Huntington. He introduced the concept in five phases. They are emergence of reformers, acquiring powers, the failure of liberalisation, backward legitimacy and co-opting opposition. (Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, 1991) It was then subsequently addressed through modernisation, social equality, mass mobilisation and elite pact approach inclusively. (Welzel, 2009) Huntington expressed that the third wave of democratisation occurs with the emergent of opposition groups and indigenous sources against local power’s enforcement, particularly when there is a military regimes, one party system, or an autocratic dictatorship. (Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, 1991). The purpose of this essay is to examine Huntington’s five phases with the aim of understanding what happened to the Arab Spring, in the case of Egypt. The essay also examine, whether what happened to the Arab Spring in the case of Egypt is a common structure succeeded in other states which experienced Arab Spring by comparing the exploration of revolution in Syria. (Diamond, Elections Without Democracy: Thinking about Hybrid Regimes, 2002)
Reviewing the brief history, the exploration of the insurgency for the Arab Spring kicked off in Tunisia with the suicide of Mohamed Bouazizi. Following to that, the existential crisis resonated to the revolution, protesters marched with the slogan “The people want the fall of regime” (Aljazeera, 2012), towards democratisation, all the way to Egypt and finally in Syria. (Humphrey, 2014). In the case of Egypt, the bruta...
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...idates to participate in the election, in reality, due to the autocratic power, no candidates were free to challenge Mubarak. (Arafat, 2009) Banning of Muslim Brotherhood from nominating presidential candidate, (Wickham, 2013) and the rejection of Talaat Sadat from participating in the election (Lesch, 2011) ultimately resulted the seventh victory of Mubarak with 88.6%, but did not allow to exercise the Amendment.
Secondly the announcement about the removal of party restriction to increase party independence, was considered as another liberalisation of reform. But, in reality, the Political Parties Committee (PPC) was formed to decide the eligibility of every parties to participate in the election, as a part of reform, and interestingly the general secretary of National Democratic Party head by Mubarak, was appointed as the head of the PPC. (Arafat, 2009)
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