Apa Style

Apa Style

Length: 1592 words (4.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
How to Document Sources in APA Style

I. References
References provide the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It should begin on a separate page from the text of the essay under the label References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page.
Basic Rules
• Author's names are inverted. Begin with last name, followed by a comma, then by middle and first initials. Example: Smith, M. F. Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors. Example: Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.
• Date: The publication date should be enclosed in parentheses. Example: (1998)
• Title: Italicize titles of books and periodicals. Capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle of a work. Close with a final period. Example: Curing the crisis: Options for America's health care.
• Location: You should always list the city, but you should also include the state abbreviation if the city is not well known for publishing. You can omit state for the following cities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Place a colon (:) after location. Example: Springfield, MA:
• Publisher (for books): Use the full name of the publisher, but drop Co., Inc., Publishers, etc. Retain Books or Press. Close with a period. Example: Merriam-Webster.
• Reference list must be double-spaced. All lines after the first line of each entry should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. The reference list should be alphabetized by authors' last names. If you have more than one work by the same author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest. If no author is given for a particular source, alphabetize using the title of the work.

BOOKS - General Format
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Book title. Location: Publisher.

One Author
Reagan, M. D. (1992). Curing the crisis: Options for America's health care.

Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Two Authors
Cohen, L. G., & Spenciner, L. J. (1994). Assessment of young children. White

Plains, NY: Longman.
Three to Six Authors
Pratkanis, A. R., Brecker, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Attitude structure and

function. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
• If a book has more than six authors, after giving the sixth author's name and initial, use et al. (not italicized and with a period after "al") to indicate the remaining authors of the book.
Edited Book
Gibbs, J.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Apa Style." 123HelpMe.com. 18 Jul 2018
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=156400>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Free Essays - APA Style Sample

- APA Style Sample APA (American Psychological Association) style is primarily used in the social science disciplines. It is formatted like MLA, and shows many similarities, but is unique in several key points. APA uses parenthetical (or in-text) citations within sentences, but rather than indicating the author's name and page number, APA includes author's name and date of publication. The page number, represented with a p. or a pp., is only added to the citation when using a direct quote (not a summary or paraphrase)....   [tags: APA]

Research Papers
581 words (1.7 pages)

Essay Apa Style

- How to Document Sources in APA Style I. References References provide the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It should begin on a separate page from the text of the essay under the label References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page. Basic Rules • Author's names are inverted. Begin with last name, followed by a comma, then by middle and first initials....   [tags: Process Essays]

Free Essays
1592 words (4.5 pages)

APA 6th Edition Formatting Essay

- APA 6th Edition Formatting Three Citations Using Direct Quotes Intuition and analysis are two cognitive styles used by entrepreneurs in new venture formation. Researches Kickul, Gundry, Barbosa, and Whitcanack (2009) studied the effects of intuition versus analysis on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and found that “individuals with the intuitive cognitive style were more confident in their ability to identify and recognize opportunities,” but “individuals with the analytic cognitive style were more confident in their abilities to assess, evaluate, plan, and marshal resources” (p....   [tags: Language]

Research Papers
914 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on Nonsense for APA Formatting

- ... A book with two authors is needed for this paper, so I picked one at random. Within the chosen book, the first statement is; “When I was little, my dad used to tell me, “Will, you can pick your friends, and you can pick your nose, but you can’t pick your friend’s nose.”” (Green & Levithan, 2011). I have no idea what this book is about; I just know it’s intended for a juvenile audience. Newspapers are widely used for information, so I’m going to cite one as well. The nearest newspaper to me is The Sun Star, and an interesting article in this newspaper is written by Kurtis Gosney....   [tags: practicing research paper formats]

Research Papers
557 words (1.6 pages)

Personal Writing Improvement Assessment Essay

- Writing Improvement Assessment As this course in writing, for public administrators, comes to its conclusion, I have read provided materials, researched additional references and written various journal entries and analysis papers on topics that included writing skills and real world communications. The writing skill assignments provided the most interesting points but surprisingly, it was simple proof reading that proved the skill I need to spend more time mastering. This self-assessment will focus on the improvements I have made, points I have found interesting and the goals I have set to continue to improve my writing and communication skills....   [tags: style, format, editing]

Research Papers
538 words (1.5 pages)

On Style Essay

- On Style Style is a very ambiguous word. Asking the question, “What is Style?” is almost a philosophical endeavor, comparable with “What is Truth?” Asking the question, “What is Good Style?” is even harder. Society’s boundaries are constantly shifting to accept or banish items from the definition, in art and writing specifically. Yet there are certain elements that remain constant in all these changes, and these are the elements that style manuals try to pin down. Before the class reading/blogging project began, I thought of style as the method a writer uses to communicate his/her ideas to the reader....   [tags: Style Toward Clarity Elements Writing Essays]

Free Essays
932 words (2.7 pages)

Essay on The Style of Writing

- The Style of Writing According to the Webster’s New World Dictionary, the definition of style is “a characteristic manner of expression”(612). Usually words such as personal, individual, and unique also come to mind when we think of writing style. I have always associated writing style with belonging uniquely to one individual, meaning that everyone had his or her own style. After reading, “Style Toward Clarity and Grace” by Joseph Williams and “The Elements of Style” by William Strunk and E.B....   [tags: Writing Styles Style Essays]

Free Essays
1202 words (3.4 pages)

Essay on Insights on Style

- Insights on Style A writer sits down on his hickory brown leather upholstered chair in a lowered den of a cape-cod house in the country. He slips his bifocals up the ridge of his nose and pulls his typewriter with both arms to a comfortable typing distance. He is now ready to write and write with style. He has in mind that his certain eloquence will provide cohesion, concision and elegance that will be clear and concise so the reader will be able to determine exactly the message he is portraying....   [tags: Style Writing Styles Essays]

Free Essays
1166 words (3.3 pages)

Style Essay

- Style I often wonder what style is, and how does a person know when they are in possession of it. Style is one of the many things that seem to change form day to day for me, and I'm never sure where it might lead me. I think we all have our own style, but how can we get away from having the same style that other people have. When I look through magazines, all I read is the same thing over and over, in a little different style, or voice. Then, when I look out the window, I see people dressed in about the same fashions....   [tags: Style Personality Individuality Papers]

Research Papers
1804 words (5.2 pages)

Essay about Style

- Style After reading Strunk and White’s, The Elements of Style, Williams’, Style: Toward Clarity and Grace, and my peers’ reviews of these two books, I have come up with an all encompassing answer to the question: what is style, and what elements are most important to all writers. The answer is: there is no clear cut definition of style. It is ever changing; and is based on society’s views of what makes good writing, not necessarily the writer’s own thoughts on the matter. Therefore, the writer is better off following the set rules of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, determined by society; then adding her own voice....   [tags: Writing Styles Style Paper]

Free Essays
1566 words (4.5 pages)

T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological

interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
• For a book with just one editor, use (Ed.).
Book with an Author and an Editor
Welty, E. (1994). A writer's eye: Collected book reviews (P. A. McHaney, Ed.).

Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Chapter from a Book
Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children.

In B. F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development

(pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.
No Author or Editor
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA:

Merriam-Webster.
Encyclopedia Article
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26,

pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

PERIODICALS - General Format
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number, pages.

• Date of publication: Include year of publication, add month and day of publication for daily, weekly, or monthly publications. Enclose in parentheses.
• Title of article: Do not italicize the title of article or place quotation marks around it.
• Title of periodical: Include the full periodical title, using upper and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical and the volume number, if any.
• Volume number: Give the volume number of journals, magazines, and newsletters. Do not use "Vol." before the number.
• Pages:
1. Give the page numbers for the whole article rather than the first page. Example: 204-232.
2. Only use the abbreviations before page numbers from newspapers. Use "p." for one page (Example: p. A1) and "pp." for more than one page (Example: pp. A1, A6).
3. For journal and magazine articles, just include the page numbers with no abbreviation or label. Example: 28-31.
Journal Articles
Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. A. (2000). Treatment for

sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55,

1040-1049.
• If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. See example below.
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.
Magazine Articles
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.
Newspaper Articles
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The

Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
• If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma. Example: pp. B1, B3, B5-7.

INTERNET SOURCES - General Formats
Article from a Database
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume

number (issue number), pages. Retrieved month date, year, from Database
name.
Online Document
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Retrieved month date, year,

from http://web address

Because the Internet is constantly changing, it is important that you give the uniform resource locator (URL) of the Internet resource and the date you accessed it. Provide as much identifying information as possible. The APA citation will include as many of the following elements in the order listed. For some Web sites you may only have a title, a date of access and an address to cite.
• Author(s) last name and initials, if available. If not available, start with the title.
• Date of publication, in parentheses, if available. The date should be expressed as either a year, a year and a month, or a year, month and date depending on what information is available from the Web site.
• Title of work, italicized. If the source is a periodical article, include the title of the article (not italicized), and then the name of the periodical, italicized, followed by a volume number, also italicized, if available. Use "headline" style capitalization for name of the periodical. This means that the first letter of each important word should be capitalized. Example: U.S. News & World Report
• Pagination information, if available. More often than not, this will NOT be available for Web sites.
• Retrieval information includes the date of retrieval as well as the unique URL of a Web site. Avoid dividing the URL at the end of a line. If absolutely necessary, divide it at a slash (/) or before a period. Example: Retrieved July 30, 2002, from http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/ library
• If the source is from a library-based electronic resource the retrieval information will include the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. Example: Retrieved August 22, 2002, from General Reference Center database.
Articles from Library Electronic Databases
White, B. (2002, July 30). Stocks make more big gains. The Washington Post,

p. A1. Retrieved August 1, 2002, from NewsBank database.
Geiger, H. J. (2001, May). Terrorism, biological weapons, and bonanzas: Assessing

the real threat to public health. American Journal of Public Health, 91,

708-709. Retrieved August 1, 2002, from Academic Search Premier

database.
Electronic Newspaper Article
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk

out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from

http://www.nytimes.com
Document with Author and Date
Murray, J. P. Children and television violence. (1995). Retrieved July 19, 2001,

from http://www.ksu.edu/humec/kulaw.htm
Document with No Author, No Date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from

http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/
• Begin with the title of the document if there is no author
• n.d. = no date
E-mail
• E-mail sent from one individual to another should be cited as a communication (see example for personal communications)

AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA:
Formats vary for citing audiovisual media. Consult pp. 266-268 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition for samples of citation format.

Motion Picture or Videotape
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can Count

on me [Motion picture]. United State: Paramount Pictures.
Archer, D. (Writer/Director). (1992). A world of gestures: Cultural and nonverbal

communication [Videotape]. Berkeley: University of California Extension

Media Center.
Radio or Television Program
Crystal L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour

[Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting

Service.

II. Quotations in Text
When you quote, summarize, or use the ideas from another source, you should list the author's last name, followed by a comma, then by publication year in parentheses in your text. Indicate the page when citing a specific part of a source. Always give page numbers for quotations.
Example:
A traumatic response frequently entails a "delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena" (Caruth, 1996, p.11)
One work by one author
(Walker, 2000)
More than one author with the same last name
(H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
Two or more works in the same parentheses
(Fussel, 1975; Caruth, 1996; Showalter, 1997)
Six or more authors
(Smith et al, 1998)
If the source has no known author, use the title
• Cite the first few words of the title and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of article or chapter
Full Title: "California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers"
Citation: ("California," 1999)
• Italicize the title of a periodical, book, or report.
the book College Bound Seniors (1979)
Specific part of a source
(Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332)
(Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
Personal communications (e-mail, personal interviews, and telephone conversations, etc.)
Source: email message from John Smith
Citation: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 16, 1998)
• Personal communication is not available to your readers. Cite it in text only. Do not include it in the reference list. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact date as possible.
A general reference to a web site
Source: Honolulu Community College Library web site
Citation: (http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/library)
Return to 123HelpMe.com