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References provide the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It should begin on a separate page from the text of the essay under the label References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page.
Author's names are inverted. Begin with last name, followed by a comma, then by middle and first initials. Example: Smith, M. F. Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors. Example: Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.
Date: The publication date should be enclosed in parentheses. Example: (1998)
Title: Italicize titles of books and periodicals. Capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle of a work. Close with a final period. Example: Curing the crisis: Options for America's health care.
Location: You should always list the city, but you should also include the state abbreviation if the city is not well known for publishing. You can omit state for the following cities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Place a colon (:) after location. Example: Springfield, MA:
Publisher (for books): Use the full name of the publisher, but drop Co., Inc., Publishers, etc. Retain Books or Press. Close with a period. Example: Merriam-Webster.
Reference list must be double-spaced. All lines after the first line of each entry should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. The reference list should be alphabetized by authors' last names. If you have more than one work by the same author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest. If no author is given for a particular source, alphabetize using the title of the work.
BOOKS - General Format
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Book title. Location: Publisher.
Reagan, M. D. (1992). Curing the crisis: Options for America's health care.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Cohen, L. G., & Spenciner, L. J. (1994). Assessment of young children. White
Plains, NY: Longman.
Three to Six Authors
Pratkanis, A. R., Brecker, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Attitude structure and
function. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
If a book has more than six authors, after giving the sixth author's name and initial, use et al. (not italicized and with a period after "al") to indicate the remaining authors of the book.
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interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
For a book with just one editor, use (Ed.).
Book with an Author and an Editor
Welty, E. (1994). A writer's eye: Collected book reviews (P. A. McHaney, Ed.).
Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Chapter from a Book
Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children.
In B. F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development
(pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.
No Author or Editor
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA:
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26,
pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
PERIODICALS - General Format
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number, pages.
Date of publication: Include year of publication, add month and day of publication for daily, weekly, or monthly publications. Enclose in parentheses.
Title of article: Do not italicize the title of article or place quotation marks around it.
Title of periodical: Include the full periodical title, using upper and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical and the volume number, if any.
Volume number: Give the volume number of journals, magazines, and newsletters. Do not use "Vol." before the number.
1. Give the page numbers for the whole article rather than the first page. Example: 204-232.
2. Only use the abbreviations before page numbers from newspapers. Use "p." for one page (Example: p. A1) and "pp." for more than one page (Example: pp. A1, A6).
3. For journal and magazine articles, just include the page numbers with no abbreviation or label. Example: 28-31.
Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. A. (2000). Treatment for
sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55,
If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. See example below.
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The
Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma. Example: pp. B1, B3, B5-7.
INTERNET SOURCES - General Formats
Article from a Database
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume
number (issue number), pages. Retrieved month date, year, from Database
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Retrieved month date, year,
from http://web address
Because the Internet is constantly changing, it is important that you give the uniform resource locator (URL) of the Internet resource and the date you accessed it. Provide as much identifying information as possible. The APA citation will include as many of the following elements in the order listed. For some Web sites you may only have a title, a date of access and an address to cite.
Author(s) last name and initials, if available. If not available, start with the title.
Date of publication, in parentheses, if available. The date should be expressed as either a year, a year and a month, or a year, month and date depending on what information is available from the Web site.
Title of work, italicized. If the source is a periodical article, include the title of the article (not italicized), and then the name of the periodical, italicized, followed by a volume number, also italicized, if available. Use "headline" style capitalization for name of the periodical. This means that the first letter of each important word should be capitalized. Example: U.S. News & World Report
Pagination information, if available. More often than not, this will NOT be available for Web sites.
Retrieval information includes the date of retrieval as well as the unique URL of a Web site. Avoid dividing the URL at the end of a line. If absolutely necessary, divide it at a slash (/) or before a period. Example: Retrieved July 30, 2002, from http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/ library
If the source is from a library-based electronic resource the retrieval information will include the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. Example: Retrieved August 22, 2002, from General Reference Center database.
Articles from Library Electronic Databases
White, B. (2002, July 30). Stocks make more big gains. The Washington Post,
p. A1. Retrieved August 1, 2002, from NewsBank database.
Geiger, H. J. (2001, May). Terrorism, biological weapons, and bonanzas: Assessing
the real threat to public health. American Journal of Public Health, 91,
708-709. Retrieved August 1, 2002, from Academic Search Premier
Electronic Newspaper Article
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk
out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from
Document with Author and Date
Murray, J. P. Children and television violence. (1995). Retrieved July 19, 2001,
Document with No Author, No Date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from
Begin with the title of the document if there is no author
n.d. = no date
E-mail sent from one individual to another should be cited as a communication (see example for personal communications)
Formats vary for citing audiovisual media. Consult pp. 266-268 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition for samples of citation format.
Motion Picture or Videotape
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can Count
on me [Motion picture]. United State: Paramount Pictures.
Archer, D. (Writer/Director). (1992). A world of gestures: Cultural and nonverbal
communication [Videotape]. Berkeley: University of California Extension
Radio or Television Program
Crystal L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour
[Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting
II. Quotations in Text
When you quote, summarize, or use the ideas from another source, you should list the author's last name, followed by a comma, then by publication year in parentheses in your text. Indicate the page when citing a specific part of a source. Always give page numbers for quotations.
A traumatic response frequently entails a "delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena" (Caruth, 1996, p.11)
One work by one author
More than one author with the same last name
(H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
Two or more works in the same parentheses
(Fussel, 1975; Caruth, 1996; Showalter, 1997)
Six or more authors
(Smith et al, 1998)
If the source has no known author, use the title
Cite the first few words of the title and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of article or chapter
Full Title: "California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers"
Citation: ("California," 1999)
Italicize the title of a periodical, book, or report.
the book College Bound Seniors (1979)
Specific part of a source
(Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332)
(Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
Personal communications (e-mail, personal interviews, and telephone conversations, etc.)
Source: email message from John Smith
Citation: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 16, 1998)
Personal communication is not available to your readers. Cite it in text only. Do not include it in the reference list. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact date as possible.
A general reference to a web site
Source: Honolulu Community College Library web site