Other than flavoring, aroma and preservatives, spices have many therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antifungal. The antimicrobial properties of spices have led to the development of plant-origin antibiotics so as to overcome the antibiotic resistant problems. In addition, the anticancer, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of spice extracts have help to maintain and promote the health of human (Ceylan and Fung, 2004).
1.1 SPICES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
Prolonged antibiotic usage has resulted in the development of several resistance mechanisms by the bacteria, causing them to be resistant towards the action of antibiotics. Many infectious pathogens have developed multidrug resistance capacity, including methicilin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance is caused by either genetic or biochemical aspects.
Antibiotic resistance may occur due to the mutation caused by errors of replication or incorrect repair of damaged DNA (Giedraitiene et al., 2011). The changes in at least 7 amino acids in the gyrA gene or 3 amino acids in the parC gene causes Escherichia coli to be resistance towards quinolones; whereas, complete resistance to rifampin is mainly because of the single point mutation in rpoB gene (Dzidic et al., 2008).
Hypermutators are bacteria with...
... middle of paper ...
...V.S., Luximon-Ramma, A., Aruoma, O.I. and Bahorun, T. (2005) Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: Mechanisms and actions. Mutation Research 579(1-2): 200-213
Chempakam, B. and Balaji, S. (2008) Star Anise. Chemistry of Spices 17: 319-330
De, M., De, A.K., Sen, P. and Banerjee, A.B. (2002) Antimicrobial Properties of Star Anise (Illicium verum Hook f). Phytotherapy Research 16(1): 94-95
Panpatil, V.V., Tattari, S., Kota, N., Nimgulkar, C. and Polasa, K. (2013) In vitro evaluation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts of ginger, turmeric and garlic. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2(3): 143-148
Chuang, S.E., Kuo, M.L., Hsu, C.H., Chen, C.R., Lin, J.K., Lai, G.M., Hsieh, C.Y. and Cheng, A.L. (2000) Curcumin-containing diet inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced murine hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 21(2): 331-335
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- India is known as the “The home of spices”. There is no other country in the world that produces as many kinds of spices as India. India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices. The climate of the country is suitable for almost all spices because of diverse agro-climatic regions comprising tropical, sub tropical and temperate regions, where we can grow various kinds of spices. Among the 109 spices listed by International Organization for Standardization, India grows about 60 and Indian spices flavor foods in over 130 countries (Nirmal babu et al., 2013) Spices constitute an important group of agricultural commodities and have played a major role in human life and history bec... [tags: spices, flavor foods, seed spices]
1629 words (4.7 pages)
- Lessons Learned in Kate O’Brien’s Land of Spices Kate O’Brien’s Land of Spices is a good read especially if the bookworm is from a catholic school upbringing. The story’s contents complete with the antics of the girls and the lack of patience in the sisters is recognizable from memories drawn on similar events. The nuns’ softer emotions were hidden away from the students and only their hard-heartedness evident in the school’s classrooms. In sixth grade during the fall of 1963 after President Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas, a Dominican sister was seen at school with tears in her eyes.... [tags: Land Spices]
2254 words (6.4 pages)
- The therapeutic use of humor can be loosely defined as any activities that use the positive emotional responses associated with humor, smiling and laughter to specifically benefit one or more clients’ social, emotional, physical, cognitive or wellness domains. Using humor, therapeutically, involves establishing specific desired outcomes for a client which are facilitated by the use of humor and related techniques. Dattilo & McKenney, (2011) define the therapeutic use of humor when “specialists and others use humor in practice, they play for it to lead to specific therapeutic outcomes”.... [tags: humor, therapeutic recreation, clowns]
1100 words (3.1 pages)
- Therapeutic communication is a crucial and necessary tool that should be used on all occasions when dealing with a patient in the health care industry. I found the vignette video ‘Pregnant Stroke – Incident Scene’ to be a good example of how therapeutic communication should be used to create a human connection between patient and professional. The video involves paramedics attending the scene of a female having suffered from a stroke whilst pregnant. Allied health professionals initially perform a brief medical assessment on the patient by checking her vitals inclusive of blood pressure and heart rate.... [tags: Therapeutic Communication Essays]
792 words (2.3 pages)
- Animals may be incorporated into the treatment process to facilitate the attainment of calculated goals and objectives. These goals and objectives may be physical (fine or gross motor skills), social (casual interaction), intellectual (recreation education), or emotional (anxiety reduction) in nature. Animals involved in these interventions have undergone rigorous training and assessment processes and are accompanied by trained handlers with dedicated knowledge of the profession (Powell, 2012). Potential Target Groups Research demonstrates that the therapeutic use of animals may be beneficial to a wide range of individuals.... [tags: therapeutic animals, recreation therapist]
1372 words (3.9 pages)
- Do you know how to use antibiotics correctly. Firstly, it is important to make a distinction between antimicrobial and antibiotic. Antimicrobial is any compounds that would be used to treat or prevent numerous infections, and could be included anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal (HMA Definitions, 2012). Antibiotic, or anti-bacterial, is a drug made by substances obtained by different microorganisms and fungi, and it is used to treat bacterial infections, avoiding the growth or killing the bacteria.... [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Penicillin]
2062 words (5.9 pages)
- Antimicrobial and Antioxidant features of Nutmeg Introduction Hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, super oxide anion and free radicals consist of reactive oxygen species. These reactive species will cause damage to the biological molecules. The damaged bio molecules might initiate certain diseases or might lead to the worsening of the existing diseases. Free radicals are reactive ions that can cause progression of diseases like diabetes, immunosuppression, metabolic injury, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, aging, and Parkinson’s disease.... [tags: natural medicine]
951 words (2.7 pages)
- 1a. Explain your understanding of a "therapeutic relationship" with a client. A therapeutic relationship with a client is a well planned and goal oriented connection between the clinician and the client in order to meet the therapeutic needs. The clinician would develop and maintain mutually beneficial association with the client and his family. He always believes the client as a person of goodness, dignity and strength. 1b. what are the benefits of a therapeutic relationship. Encourages Positive Interaction Encouraging a patient to express himself allows you to get more information of the client's emotional tendencies and helps determine the most beneficial treatment approach.... [tags: Therapeutic Relationship Essays]
1402 words (4 pages)
- In Jacquelyn Small’s book “Becoming Naturally Therapeutic: A Return to the True Essence of Helping,” I explored what it takes to be a genuinely helpful counselor. Although I do not intend to pursue a career in counseling, her book touches on various topics that may be used by all individuals. Small provides her readers with a check-list of characteristic ranging from empathy to respect to self-actualization that are virtually essential to becoming therapeutic. The book begins by stating that “ordinary people” offer better therapeutic help than professionals.... [tags: essays research papers]
932 words (2.7 pages)
- Introduction Since the beginning of the antibiotic error in the mid 20th century, antimicrobial resistance has been recognized. The increased use of antimicrobial agents in the recent years has resulted in the development of resistance to these drugs. Clinical threats have however been minimized by the availability of newer agents (Bonomo & Tolmasky 2007). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive (WHO 2012).... [tags: Medical Research]
1818 words (5.2 pages)