Antimicrobial and Other Therapeutic Properties of Spices Essays

Antimicrobial and Other Therapeutic Properties of Spices Essays

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Spices are natural compounds derived from different parts of a plant which are commonly used as flavoring, aroma and preservatives. The essential oil content and oleoresins present in the spices have given them the flavoring and aroma. In addition, the essential oil can also act as a natural preservative in foods (Ceylan and Fung, 2004).
Other than flavoring, aroma and preservatives, spices have many therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antifungal. The antimicrobial properties of spices have led to the development of plant-origin antibiotics so as to overcome the antibiotic resistant problems. In addition, the anticancer, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of spice extracts have help to maintain and promote the health of human (Ceylan and Fung, 2004).

1.1 SPICES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
Prolonged antibiotic usage has resulted in the development of several resistance mechanisms by the bacteria, causing them to be resistant towards the action of antibiotics. Many infectious pathogens have developed multidrug resistance capacity, including methicilin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance is caused by either genetic or biochemical aspects.

1.1.1 Mutations
Antibiotic resistance may occur due to the mutation caused by errors of replication or incorrect repair of damaged DNA (Giedraitiene et al., 2011). The changes in at least 7 amino acids in the gyrA gene or 3 amino acids in the parC gene causes Escherichia coli to be resistance towards quinolones; whereas, complete resistance to rifampin is mainly because of the single point mutation in rpoB gene (Dzidic et al., 2008).
Hypermutators are bacteria with...


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...V.S., Luximon-Ramma, A., Aruoma, O.I. and Bahorun, T. (2005) Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: Mechanisms and actions. Mutation Research 579(1-2): 200-213
Chempakam, B. and Balaji, S. (2008) Star Anise. Chemistry of Spices 17: 319-330
De, M., De, A.K., Sen, P. and Banerjee, A.B. (2002) Antimicrobial Properties of Star Anise (Illicium verum Hook f). Phytotherapy Research 16(1): 94-95
Panpatil, V.V., Tattari, S., Kota, N., Nimgulkar, C. and Polasa, K. (2013) In vitro evaluation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts of ginger, turmeric and garlic. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2(3): 143-148
Chuang, S.E., Kuo, M.L., Hsu, C.H., Chen, C.R., Lin, J.K., Lai, G.M., Hsieh, C.Y. and Cheng, A.L. (2000) Curcumin-containing diet inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced murine hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 21(2): 331-335

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