Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. For decades, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics has produced a formidable selective pressure towards antibiotic resistant bacteria (Levy, 1992). Bacteria have evolved and conceived different mechanisms of resistances like the production of proteins to increase export or decrease uptake of antibiotics (Sutcliffe et al., 1996), modification of the target molecule structure (Aarestrup et al., 2000) or inactivation of the antibiotic (Normark and Normark, 2002).
Emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) is becoming a global threat due to the increasing inefficiency of common antibiotics and the situation is worsened by the horizontal transfer of genes (Schlegelova et al., 2002).
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are common microorganisms of the human gut flora and in foods.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have always been used in the consumption and production of fermented foods and beverages (Leroy and Vuyst, 2004). Large quantities of LAB are consumed specially in fermented foods. LAB used as starter culture for food production could perhaps contain antibiotic resistance (AR) genes (Danielsen and Wind, 2003). They are also involved in lactic acid fermentation for yoghurt production where Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are used (Adolfson et al., 2004). Recently scientists speculated that these food bacteria act as reservoirs of AR genes and fermented foods act as carriers of huge amounts of living bacteria which might transfer AR genes to pathogenic or commensal bacteria (Franz et al., 2006). LAB like Lactococcus lactis and many Lactobacillus and Enterococcus species frequently harbor plasmids w...
... middle of paper ...
...hould concentrate on horizontal gene transfer of various resistance genes found in LAB.
Though safety evaluation of LAB used in the food industry is very important, there are several difficulties which arise. For example, no approved standards are present for the phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolates. Another problem is the actual antibiotic concentration in human blood serum was not taken into consideration. Hummel et al. (2006) concluded that safety evaluation systems should address to such problems and allow flexible interpretation of results.
Pan et al. (2011) concluded that their present research showed that LAB strains from Chinese fermented foods carry multiple antibiotic resistances and the underlying mechanisms and genetic basis of this has to be further studied for the safety assessment of Chinese food.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Spore forming bacteria Introduction The spore formation is kind of asexual reproduction which happens when the environmental conditions around the Bactria become not suitable for it and for protection too. Spores all the time haploid and unicellular and are generated by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under convenient conditions the spore can use mitotic division to promote into a new organism, which produce a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes.... [tags: biology, endospores, bacillus]
1259 words (3.6 pages)
- Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing issue in the healthcare field. However, it seems that the biggest issue across the three areas of surveillance, treatment, and infection control is a lack of research and funding to create a universal standard that all healthcare facilities must follow. Under the category of surveillance, it seems that most facilities are leaning towards molecular testing as the gold star for identifying and isolating the strain of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Buford et al., the Report to the President on Combatting Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, McArthur et al., and Perez et al.... [tags: Antibiotic resistance, Bacteria, Penicillin]
947 words (2.7 pages)
- The Rise of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Did you know that the development of antibiotics has dropped to such a slow pace in recent years that some bacteria may recapture superiority over antibiotics when they cause infections. As a matter of fact, 450,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were detected in 2012.6 92 countries have also reported that they have identified extensively drug- resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).6 These are problematic stats because these bacteria’s cannot be treated very easily, treatments are longer and also less effective due to the fact that these are resistant to many antibiotics.... [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Penicillin]
2041 words (5.8 pages)
- Stewart, Philip S, (2001) states that antibiotics are elements that are used to kill, or hinder the multiplication and growth of organisms. Especially, these antibiotics are meant to control fungi and bacteria. In this case, the antibiotics that are used in killing bacteria are referred to as bactericidal, and the ones that are used to prevent the multiplication process are bacteriostatic. The primary microbes for antibiotics are bacteria and fungi. These microorganisms are crucial to facilitate the secretion of substances that kill harmful bacteria which confer competition for the limited available nutrients (Southern, P.... [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Microorganism]
870 words (2.5 pages)
- What are some ways to increase surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. The word surveillance, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, means to keep a close watch over something or someone in addition to supervise. When this word is used in relation to antibiotic resistant bacteria, it means to keep a close eye or observe any changes in the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. Alicia Demirjian et al. (2015) have concluded that “antibiotic prescribing must be tracked to understand and improve antibiotic use” (page 871).... [tags: Antibiotic resistance, Bacteria, Penicillin]
831 words (2.4 pages)
- Like I have already stated, antibiotic resistance is a natural process of bacteria so there is no real solution but we can defiantly slow it down and let nature take its course. To begin to try and slow down antibiotic resistance we can do several things. We can start with us individuals. By using good hygiene, we can help to prevent the spread of bacteria therefor preventing disease and the need for antibiotics. We can also begin to inform the public more about this issue so they have an understanding as to what’s going on because if you aren’t related to the health field you probably don’t know what antibiotic resistance even is.... [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Infection]
943 words (2.7 pages)
- Antibiotic Therapy: Killing Bacteria or Creating Resistance. The threat of antibiotics becoming ineffectual to treating various and potentially life threatening bacteria is becoming more and more prominent. Some believe that we may be living in a post-antibiotic era. There are only so many drugs that can be used and/or created to treat these bacterial infections to help those with these illnesses. People need to become more self aware as to what they are taking and what it is being taken for. People will often times try to treat illnesses with antibiotics even though antibiotics shouldn’t be taken for it, such as viruses.... [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance]
1085 words (3.1 pages)
- Antibiotic resistant is the act of a bacteria that becomes resistant to a drug. Young teenagers and anyone uneducated on the topic is the population at risk. The population at risk needs to avoid resorting so quickly to pain relief medications and antibiotics. When medications and pain relief are necessary, the full extent of the antibiotics need to be taken and careful to not be misused (unnecessary use, incomplete use, and reuse of old antibiotics). To decrease poor practices, there has been intervention strategies performed to help bring education and awareness on how to properly take antibiotics, what antibiotics are, and the consequences that lead to antibiotic resistance.... [tags: Antibiotic resistance, Bacteria, Antibiotic]
1991 words (5.7 pages)
- My final project topic is antibiotic resistance. The focus is on ‘how bacterium genetically mutates or acquire resistance from another bacterium causing antibiotic-resistance and its clinical significant to other disease treatment such as cancer and other infectious disease’. In the past 10 years, there has been increasing awareness of antibiotic resistance. Common usage of antibiotic medicine has been a leading factor for developing antibiotic-resistance. There has been a growth of antibiotic-resistant death since organisms have developed their resistant to antibiotics, such as Superbugs.... [tags: Antibiotic resistance, Bacteria, Evolution]
1367 words (3.9 pages)
- Bacteria refer to a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms (microscopic organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus). They are very abundant in nature. For example, according to Christian Nordqvist (2009), a gram of soil can contain up to forty million bacterial cells. Bacterial microorganisms can be found almost anywhere and can adjust extremely well to surrounding conditions. Not all bacteria are harmful and even play an important role in the recycling of nutrients. By recycling nutrients bacteria become a valuable resource for the human body.... [tags: bacteria, probiotics, pathogenic]
668 words (1.9 pages)
- The Tobacco Use Achievement From The Century Of Progress
- Principles And Techniques Of Effective Communication
- Analysis Of ' Twelve Angry Men '
- Domestic Violence And Its Effects On Society
- How Does Statins Work Affect The Body And The Benefits That They Have For People With Heart Diseases?
- Computer Technology Is Better For Individual Lifestyles