Bacillus Anthraces, commonly known as Anthrax, is a bacterial infectious disease involving the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal track in its host. Anthrax affects humans and animals, usually resulting in death. This bacteria is passed to humans through contact with infected animals or the products produced by infected animals. Anthrax originates in the soil as spores, which can live up to 48 years, and is transmitted to animals who graze or live on farmlands and on any infected areas. In recent years, more attention has been given to Anthrax when it was discovered that it could be passed by biological warfare. Bioterrorist threats, such as Anthrax has heightened our nations awareness that we are vulnerable and need a new public health infrastructure.
Public Health Resources
The most common public health resource to prevent anthrax is through vaccines. These vaccines are especially valuable for people who are at high risk for being infected, such as veterinarians. If the individual is already infected, Anthrax can be cured through antibiotics, if caught early. The later stages of Anthrax most often results in death.
Bioterrorism threats have caused great concern in the United States due to their nature. Unlike terrorism with bombs, where we are instantly made aware of the threat, bioterrorism is not noticed until people start piling up in the emergency rooms of hospitals. Bioterrorism is a silent killer. Anthrax has become a preferred weapon with terrorist because it is difficult to detect. With the lingering threats of the Anthrax attacks of 2001, our public health system has moved from being a local and state responsibility, to a federally mandated homeland security responsibility. Our public health...
... middle of paper ...
...nding biohazards, such as Anthrax, as a preferable method to cause damage within our nation. Local, State, and Governmental agencies have realized the need for an improved public health system after the threats of 9/11 and 2001 Anthrax scare. A new public health infrastructure could greatly decrease our vulnerability to bioterrorist threats.
CIAG. (2001). Public responsibility and mass destruction: The bioterrorism threat. Retrieved on March 19, 2012, from http://wearcam.org/decon/mass_quarantine_bioterr.html
FEMA. (2012). Communication and information management. Retrieved on March 19, 2012, from http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/FAQ.shtm
Tucker, J. (2008). Proliferation of biodefense laboratories and the need for national biosecurity. Retrieved on March 19, 2012, from http://www.hsaj.org/?special:fullarticle=9999.1.5
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- There are two main factors that are important for an anthrax infection: bacterial proliferation (growth) and invasion of organ systems and the “…cytotoxic effect of anthrax toxin, with eventual organ failure and death” (Karginov). The first factor occurs once the host has been infected. This infection will never be reached if it were not for a very important characteristic of the bacterium: its ability to form spores. Sporulation occurs in the soil and on culture media but “…not in living tissue, unless exposed to air” (Sakarya).... [tags: Anthrax]
1548 words (4.4 pages)
- The disease Anthrax derives its name from the Greek word anthracis, which means “coal”. This name is in response to the “characteristic black, coal-like central regions located on the anthrax skin lesions…” that appear in the cutaneous (tissue) form of the disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)). Although the 2001 letter attacks brought it widespread attention, anthrax has been around throughout history in many different areas. For example, the fifth and/or sixth plagues of Egypt that occurred during the time of Moses (1250 B.C.) are thought to represent the “earliest historical reports of the disease, due to the systemic and cutaneous forms of the disease”(Turnbull).... [tags: Anthrax]
611 words (1.7 pages)
- Anthrax is one of the most preferred biological warfare agents for many highly identified reasons. First, anthrax is extremely lethal. Anthrax can contain up to 100 million lethal doses in just one gram of anthrax spores, which is 100,000 times more lethal than any other biological warfare agent. It is also known that inhalation anthrax is almost always fatal if the symptoms are allowed to progress without any treatment. Anthrax is also the silent and invisible killer. On top of the fatality rate of anthrax, there are also very low barriers to produce the biological weapon.... [tags: Anthrax Biology Biological Terrorism]
538 words (1.5 pages)
- Aside from treatments of the disease, there is also another way to fight anthrax: an anthrax vaccine. For some time now, a vaccine to protect animals from anthrax has been available. It wasn’t until “…1970, when a human vaccine was licensed called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)” (Joellenbeck). It was licensed for workers at high risk for occupational exposure to anthrax. The vaccine is “…a cell-free filtrate containing protective antigen as the principal immunogen” (Joellenbeck). The vaccine also was “…found to be 93% effective in preventing both cutaneous and inhalation anthrax” (CDC).... [tags: Anthrax Vaccine]
809 words (2.3 pages)
- 1. The anthrax bacillus is considered the first "germ" proved to cause human disease. In 2001, Anthrax was deliberately spread through the postal system by sending letters with powder containing anthrax. This caused 22 cases of anthrax infection. 2. Anthrax is a serious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms spores. There are three types of anthrax: skin (cutaneous) lungs (inhalation) digestive (gastrointestinal) 3. Anthrax is not known to spread from one person to another.... [tags: essays research papers]
470 words (1.3 pages)
- Anthrax is a very real and dangerous threat to all people who come in contact with it. The bacterial infection is caused by the bacteriaium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is divided into three categories all are contracted in different ways. The first type is called Cutaneous Anthrax; this is where anthrax spores make contact with the skin. If there is a cut or a lesion then a person can be infected. Cutaneous Anthrax is the most common way to get anthrax, but is also the least lethal. The second type of anthrax is called Pulmonary Anthrax this is where a person inhales the spores of anthrax directly into the lungs.... [tags: essays research papers]
561 words (1.6 pages)
- Anthrax is the preferred biological warfare agent because: It is highly lethal. 100 million lethal doses per gram of anthrax material (100,000 times deadlier than the deadliest chemical warfare agent). Silent, invisible killer. Inhalational anthrax is virtually always fatal. There are low barriers to production. Low cost of producing the anthrax material. Not high-technology. Knowledge is widely available. Easy to produce in large quantities. It is easy to weaponize. It is extremely stable. It can be stored almost indefinitely as a dry powder.... [tags: essays research papers]
511 words (1.5 pages)
- Anthrax Many Facilities in communities around the country have received anthrax threat letters. Most were empty envelopes. Some have contained powder substances. Anthrax has been linked back to the fifth and sixth plaques of Egypt around 1500 BC. In the early 1700s it first appeared in North America in Louisiana. In Kentucky at about 1824 cutaneous anthrax appeared among cowboys on cattle ranches. Germany, Russia, and Japan conducted extensive research toward the use of anthrax as a biological weapon in the 1930s.... [tags: Papers]
579 words (1.7 pages)
- ANTHRAX One of the most important responsibilities a Secretary of Defense has is to make sure the United States’ military members are protected as much as possible from any type of harm. Since the cease-fire of the Gulf War, the Joint Chiefs of Staff have discovered that anthrax has become the number one biological threat to our troops. With finding this information, the Secretary of Defense, William S. Cohen, has decided to ensure that each military member is protected from anthrax with its vaccine.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
885 words (2.5 pages)
- Could someone use anthrax for a larger attack on American cities. Unfortunately, yes-and they could also use any of a series of other germs, some more lethal than anthrax. But it’s not easy to get anthrax, and it’s not easy to deploy. The Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo tried to spread anthrax from its Tokyo office building in 1993 and failed dismally. Experts disagree on how dangerous it would be if someone sprinkled anthrax in, say, an office ventilation system or a subway car, but any larger attack would be hard to pull off.... [tags: essays research papers]
1311 words (3.7 pages)