Sponge function is the third type which has been introduced recently. It takes input of any length and then pads with additional characters. It returns the requested length of characters as output.
Ciampa, in his book Security Guide to Network Security Fundamentals, has classified the cryptographic algorithms into three types (189):
1. Hash algorithms
2. Symmetric encryption algorithms (secret key cryptography)
3. Asymmetric encryption algorithms (public key cryptography)
Hash algorithms are the most basic type of cryptographic algorithms. Actually, it is a one-way algorithm. In public-key encryption, the key is based on the hash value. As a result, this hash creates a unique digital fingerprint called digest (Tyson 3). Besides, it is used only for the comparisons, but not for the encryption purpose. For example, if 30,145 is the input number and it is to be multiplied (Hashing algorithm) by 567 the result obtained is 17092215. However, it is difficult to work back and get the original numbers that are used to get this output. Most importantly, without knowing the data that are used to create a hash value, it is impossible to derive the...
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...private key decrypts it. In the same way when the private key encrypts the document, the public key decrypts it (Ciampa 201). Hence, the digital signatures prevent the sender from disowning the message.
Now, let’s see how the digital signature functions in providing non-repudiation. Alice uses her private key to encrypt the document. This results in a digital signature (Czagan). Then Alice sends the appended signature document to Bob. Now, Bob uses Alice’s public key to decrypt the digital signature. And then, Bob calculates the hash to get the digital signature. Thus Bob compares the two decrypted digital signatures. When those hashes match with each other, Bob comes to know who the original sender of the message is and exactly what are the contents of the message, which is send originally. Certainly, non-repudiation is achieved by using a digital signature (Li).
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