Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals?

Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals?

Length: 883 words (2.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Introduction
Animals have been used for pharmaceutical testing throughout history. The Greeks in early BC were the first to carry out animal testing using live animals to test experiments and different medicines on. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_animal_testing)
Animal testing has provided many positives to human lives but is still a controversial issue. Some people believe that animal testing is unnecessary and alternatives should be considered. Others believe animal testing is essential to find if certain drugs are harmful to humans.

Biology
Animal testing involves testing pharmaceutical drugs on animals in order to see the effectiveness and side effects of the drug. This is usually carried out by inhaling, inserting or placing the drug on the animal’s skin. Two regular tests conducted are the LD50 test and Draize test.
LD50 is a common animal test which stands for the lethal dose (LD) which will kill 50 per cent of the animals being tested in a certain amount of time. It involves the testing substance usually placed in the animal’s mouth via a tube. Animals are observed over a series of days to determine which dose of substance. LD50 is most commonly tested on rats and mice and is used to test drugs, agricultural chemicals, cleaners, and some cosmetics. (www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/ld50.html#_1_1)
Draize test is an eye or skin irritancy test usually conducted on rabbits to determine if the pharmaceutical is safe by placing a substance on the skin or eyes. The rabbits are seized with restraints and their eyes are held open so they are unable to blink and wash the chemical out. The effects of the pharmaceutical are observed over the following days to see if any irritation or reactions occurs.( Vicki Katrinak,...


... middle of paper ...


.../1/2
- Author Unkown, 2010,‘The Scientific Argument Against Animal Testing’ viewed 17 May 2010, www.whitecoatwelfare.org/aat-text.shtml).
- Author Unknown, 2010, ‘How are Laboratory Animals Used’, viewed 20 May <2010 altweb.jhsph.edu/resources/faqs.html#3>
- Cook, Kristen, 2006, ‘Pro-Test: supporting animal testing’ viewed May 17 2010, http://www.spiked-online.com/articles/0000000CAF94.htm
- Katrinak, Vicki,2007, ‘Rabbits Used in Product Testing’, viewed 19 May 2010 < www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html>
- Parent, Jason, 2010, ‘Is Animal Testing in Scientific Research Needed?’ viewed
- Singh, Sonu, 2009, ‘Is There a Substitute for Animal Testing?’ viewed 26 May 2010,

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Safe and Effective Pharmaceuticals Essay

- 8. Quality, safety and efficacy of drugs Safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals are two fundamental issues of importance in drug therapy. The safety of a drug is determined by its pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the adverse effects caused by the impurities in bulk and dosage forms. The impurities in drugs often possess unwanted pharmacological or toxicological effects by which any benefit from their administration may be outweighed (Nageswara at el., 2003). Therefore, it is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption must be characterized as completely as possible....   [tags: Safety, Pharmaceuticals, drugs, Safe and Effective]

Better Essays
956 words (2.7 pages)

Animal Testing Should Be Carried Out Essay

- During years, animals have been scientifically used to experiment with the purpose of testing medicines, to develop new cures and to support the scientific advancements. Animal testing is needed to preserve human life. Is why experimentation for medical purposes should be carried out, instead of scientists performing dangerous test in humans. Animal testing has been used since early times. The first writings about dissection on animals are from as early as 500 BC and Physician-scientists such as Aristotle, Herophilus, and Erasistratus performed the experiments to know the function of a living organism (Sharp)....   [tags: Animal testing, Medical research, Biology, Science]

Better Essays
1624 words (4.6 pages)

The Controversy Of Testing On Animals For Pharmaceutical Purpose For Curing Diseases

- This Critical Analysis will discuss the controversy of testing on animals for pharmaceutical purpose for curing diseases. In the article “Animal Experimentation Is Necessary” (Cohen, C., and Regan, T, 2005) Carl Cohen and Tom Regan. Philosophers from the University of Michigan, discuss why it is necessary and, how and why it benefits us humans that they experiment on animals. In the article it states that in order for diseases like Malaria and Polio to have less of an infection rate than it did back in 1948, we have to study the disease and the possible outcomes of what can happen when not treated; That is why Carl Cohen conducted experiments on animals that show why animal testing is necess...   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights]

Better Essays
1260 words (3.6 pages)

Why Animal Testing Is Necessary Essay

- Today, most of world population is living on the medication. Have you ever thought how all off the medicines come through out. How are medicines approved for human use. It is a long process including chemical synthesis, animal testing, clinical trials and post surveillance study of the drug. From those all steps, animal testing is a very crucial part and also a debatable step for research. Animals are used to check drug profile, in which animals are suffering from pain, stress and various other diseases....   [tags: Animal rights, Animal testing]

Better Essays
1434 words (4.1 pages)

Animal Testing Is No Longer A Necessary Method Of Research Essay

- Animals are often used as test subjects for scientific developments and commercial products. Medical treatments, cosmetics, and medicines are tested on animals to determine the toxicity or the safety of the product or products. In the early twentieth century, Ian Pavlov was a Nobel prize-winning psychologist for his study of dog’s digestive processes. The dogs that Pavlov experimented on were surgically implanted with a tube-like device and restrained in an isolated area. The device was used to determine their salivary gland’s reactions to food (Big Ideas Simply Explained: The Psychology Book)....   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights]

Better Essays
1089 words (3.1 pages)

Essay on Animal Testing Of Pharmaceutical Drugs

- Animal testing of pharmaceutical drugs has been a popular controversial issue we face in today’s world. It is a process that had been going on for centuries for many reasons such a developing medicine, medical treatments and surgical techniques. Without animal testing of pharmaceutical drugs where would society be. Who wants to buy an over the counter drug or prescription, knowing that it isn’t or hasn’t been tested on animals that may cause harmful effects. The human race is very important to society and is worth saving....   [tags: Animal testing, Human, Medicine, Medical research]

Better Essays
980 words (2.8 pages)

Essay on Animal Testing Should Be Carried Out At All

- Animal Experiment Diseases and viruses increase year after year; once a treatment is discovered, new diseases arise. Researchers around the world are working on their exploration to fight against new diseases that appear, thus thousands of animals every year are used for testing to help human stay healthy and validate the new medicines. People debate whether animal testing should be carried out at all. Some people believe that animals should be used in lab exploration to assist human battle for their health, while others believe that animal testing is actually hostile and morally wrong and should not be carried out....   [tags: Animal testing, Medical research, Human]

Better Essays
1010 words (2.9 pages)

Animal Testing : The Medical Field Archaic Or Necessary Practice? Essay

- Animal Testing in the Medical Field Archaic or Necessary Practice. Animal testing has been prevalent in the medical field for almost the entire existence of the medical field. Animals have been used to do everything from developing surgical procedures to vaccines; it has led to huge leaps and bound in the medical research field. However there has been a lot of controversy lately about whether or not animal testing is still relevant in today’s world. Many drugs that have not gone through animal testing have led to human deaths or disfigurements that have a count in the thousands....   [tags: Animal testing, Medical research, Pharmacology]

Better Essays
1604 words (4.6 pages)

Copper Pharmaceuticals Case Study Essay

- Key facts • Copper pharmaceuticals, Inc were a major manufacturer for prescription drugs for medical and dental professions. • Sales are done mainly with the detailers who were pharmacy school graduates and had couple years of experience as registered pharmacists in drugstores. • Bob Marsh, with CPI for 12 years, married and had two children • Marsh's initial salary was $35,000 and been raised to over $60,000 throughout his time with CPI • Marsh has 6 different field supervisor throughout the time he was with CPI • 60% of detailers had 10 or more years with CPI and only 8% turnover rate per year....   [tags: Case Study Copper Pharmaceuticals, solution]

Better Essays
1341 words (3.8 pages)

Competition in Pharmaceuticals Essay example

- For the threat of substitute products, it is still very low due to the patents protection but in case of the expired patents, it is medium. A pharmaceutical company has lots of way to fight back against generic drugs such as obtaining patents on component chemicals, manufacturing methods, product extension/formula modifications or improving drug-delivery methods. Rivalry among existing firms is medium. Each pharmaceutical company has to fight in order to take an advantage of the first one who obtains patents....   [tags: Phamaceutical Company Competition Analysis]

Free Essays
1745 words (5 pages)