Animals have been used for pharmaceutical testing throughout history. The Greeks in early BC were the first to carry out animal testing using live animals to test experiments and different medicines on. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_animal_testing)
Animal testing has provided many positives to human lives but is still a controversial issue. Some people believe that animal testing is unnecessary and alternatives should be considered. Others believe animal testing is essential to find if certain drugs are harmful to humans.
Animal testing involves testing pharmaceutical drugs on animals in order to see the effectiveness and side effects of the drug. This is usually carried out by inhaling, inserting or placing the drug on the animal’s skin. Two regular tests conducted are the LD50 test and Draize test.
LD50 is a common animal test which stands for the lethal dose (LD) which will kill 50 per cent of the animals being tested in a certain amount of time. It involves the testing substance usually placed in the animal’s mouth via a tube. Animals are observed over a series of days to determine which dose of substance. LD50 is most commonly tested on rats and mice and is used to test drugs, agricultural chemicals, cleaners, and some cosmetics. (www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/ld50.html#_1_1)
Draize test is an eye or skin irritancy test usually conducted on rabbits to determine if the pharmaceutical is safe by placing a substance on the skin or eyes. The rabbits are seized with restraints and their eyes are held open so they are unable to blink and wash the chemical out. The effects of the pharmaceutical are observed over the following days to see if any irritation or reactions occurs.( Vicki Katrinak,...
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- Author Unkown, 2010,‘The Scientific Argument Against Animal Testing’ viewed 17 May 2010, www.whitecoatwelfare.org/aat-text.shtml).
- Author Unknown, 2010, ‘How are Laboratory Animals Used’, viewed 20 May <2010 altweb.jhsph.edu/resources/faqs.html#3>
- Cook, Kristen, 2006, ‘Pro-Test: supporting animal testing’ viewed May 17 2010, http://www.spiked-online.com/articles/0000000CAF94.htm
- Katrinak, Vicki,2007, ‘Rabbits Used in Product Testing’, viewed 19 May 2010 < www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html>
- Parent, Jason, 2010, ‘Is Animal Testing in Scientific Research Needed?’ viewed
- Singh, Sonu, 2009, ‘Is There a Substitute for Animal Testing?’ viewed 26 May 2010,
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