Each year, more than twenty five million animals are used for scientific research in the U.S. More than ninety percent of those are mice (Ericson para 1). The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences argues that even sophisticated computers are unable to model interactions between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms and the environment, as well as animals, making animal research necessary in many areas. Animal studies have been used in the past and shall continue to be used in the future for a number of applications in the field of orthopedics. Human testing cannot be done for any research unless adequate safety has been ensured. Any new implant material should match various safety standards in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical stability, lack of local and systemic toxicity (Saraf 6).
Opposers and supporters can agree that animal experimentation has been helpful in leading researchers to immense expanses in invaluable scientific discovery (Ericson para 9) Most medical breakthroughs of the twentieth century included animal testing in some manner (Saraf 6). Even though there are numerous guidelines and protocols that enforce the ethical treatment of laboratory animals, it is still a particularly controversial issue to animal rights activists and the general public (Ferdowsian 473).
Most mammals are useful for experimentation due to their similar responses to humans. They have similar brain functions, stimuli responses and cerebral cortexes (Ferdowsian 476). These animal studies bridge the gap between impossible and dangerous trials and safe human testing (Saraf 6).
Legally, new drugs must be vigorously tested for toxicology in animals and considered safe before examiners a...
... middle of paper ...
Saraf, Shyam K., and Vinay Kumaraswamy. "Basic Research: Issues With Animal Experimentations." Indian Journal Of Orthopaedics 47.1 (2013): 6-9. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.
Zurlo, Joanne. "No Animals Harmed: Toward A Paradigm Shift In Toxicity Testing." The Hastings Center Report Suppl.(2012): S23-S26. MEDLINE. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.
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