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... in the UK. Thus, there are three main alternatives to animal research, namely the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement that were suggested by Russell and Burch in 1959 (Boo and Knight, 2008). These alternatives are always considered before granting licenses for researcher and if it is possible to use them in the experiment researcher must do it, because it will help to minimize the suffering of animals in the experimentation (Kolar, 2006). Therefore, the following passages will be about these alternatives and evaluation of them.
Firstly, what is meant by replacement of animals in experiments? According to Balls (1994), it may be defined as the replacement of using live animals with non-animal alternatives where it is possible. Therefore, replacement can be achieved by several ways, such as in vitro, computer modeling, using of non-sentient animals.
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