Animal Disturbances in Eastern Deciduous Forests Essay

Animal Disturbances in Eastern Deciduous Forests Essay

Length: 2592 words (7.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The study of ecology is currently primarily focused upon anthropogenic effects on ecosystems as well as feeding relationships; however, non-feeding interactions are also an important factor in understanding the balance of the ecosystem and identifying issues. These interactions are generally termed disturbances. What constitutes a disturbance? White and Pickett defined it as “any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment” (White 1985). Some definitions of disturbances such as Grime's require the destruction of biomass, however, this tends to rule out many events that cause changes in the makeup of ecosystems yet are not feeding interactions (Buckley 1992).
All animals interact with their environment beyond simply feeding as even walking can affect the makeup of the environment by crushing grasses or insects. Still, not all animals have the same degree of effect on the environment - certain animals are considered to be “ecosystem engineers.”
These ecosystem engineers include crocodiles and beavers, animals that substantially change the environment around them to adapt it to their needs. Clive G. Jones defined ecosystem engineers as “organisms that directly or indirectly modulate the availability of resources to other species, by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. In doing so, they modify, maintain, and create habitats”(Jones 1994).
Of course, not all organisms that have non-trophic effects on their environment are ecosystem engineers. It is simply that the effects of the ecosystem engineer tend to be the best studied as they have the largest, most deliberate effect. H...


... middle of paper ...


...ing monoculture comes a plethora of plant viruses that were previously reduced by diversity. As Castello states:
“As forests become monocultures of one or several species,
and as they suffer from mismanagement...they become more vulnerable to the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses”(Castello 1989).
Problematically, little is known about plant viruses and thus little is known about how to manage forests to prevent viruses or reduce their impact. There is some disagreement on whether a lack of disturbances truly leads to monoculture as certain ecologists including Hubbell believe that recruitment failures outweigh any possible effect of disturbances (Hubbell 1999). However, as studies have shown, disturbances can drastically increase recruitment failures. Nearly all researchers did agree that anthropogenic disturbances universally reduce diversity in ecosystems.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about Temperate Deciduous Forest and Missouri

- Warsaw, Missouri holds the record for both the coldest and the hottest temperatures ever recorded in Missouri ("Missouri Facts and Trivia"). The temperate deciduous forest is home to unique ecosystems and plentiful wildlife and vegetation. The temperature and precipitation in this biome is not too high or too low, hence the word temperate in the name. The terrain in the temperate deciduous biome has a great effect on the adaptations of the living organisms in the area. Missouri belongs in the temperate deciduous forest biome because both regions have similar climate, locations, terrain, flora, and fauna....   [tags: temperature, biome, precipitation, ecosystem]

Powerful Essays
888 words (2.5 pages)

Emotional, Behavioral, and Psychological Disturbances in Neglected Children

- Every year millions of children are abused and neglected worldwide. Child abuse is a global concern. It has severe outcomes on the children who are victims, and often the effects are long-lasting. Child abuse is a highly under-reported crime although of those reported, neglect accounts for the majority of child abuse cases (Pala, Ünalacak, & Ünlüoğlu, 2011). Neglect in children often has more dire consequences than other types of child abuse (DePanfilis, Children’s Bureau, & Office on Child Abuse & Neglect, 2006)....   [tags: Attachment Disturbances in Neglected Children]

Powerful Essays
1904 words (5.4 pages)

Essay on Deciduous Forests

- Deciduous Forests The definition of a deciduous forest is a biome characterized by the presence of trees that lose their leaves in the fall. I chose to narrow down this subject a little and do my report mainly on the Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous Forest. It is mainly dominate in eastern North America. It is very well known for its leaves which turn brilliant colors like brilliant reds, oranges and golds in autumn. The shortening of days in fall stimulates the plants to withdraw chlorophyll from their leaves, allowing a brief but spectacular showing of other beautiful colors before the leaves are shed completely and plants enter an extended period of dormancy....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
449 words (1.3 pages)

What´s a Tropical Rainforest Essay

- Tropical Rainforest: A tropical rainforest is a humid, moist biome located near the Earth’s equator, with the world’s largest rainforest being in South America, Southeast Asia and Africa. Rainforests collect from 60 to 160 inches of rainfall throughout the year, with the constant humidity and moisture within the rainforest creates the perfect biome for tropical condition thriving plants and animals. One of the world’s best environments for biodiversity are the tropical rainforests, they contain 15 million species of plants and animals....   [tags: biodiversity, animals, deciduous forest]

Powerful Essays
1099 words (3.1 pages)

Temperate Deciduous Forest Essay

- Temperate Deciduous Forest Geographical location- The Temperate Deciduous Forest is 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator. This climate can be found in the north in North America, Europe and Asia. In the south, the climate can be found with South America, Australia, and Africa. Climate facts- the average temperature is 50 degrees (24 degrees celsius) and its high is 86 degrees, this factor depends on the altitude of the forest. The temperate deciduous forest receives an average yearly precipitation of 2 to 5 feet, and the humidity of the forest is 60% to 80%....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
358 words (1 pages)

Animal Testing Should Be Banned Essay

- Did you know that the shampoo you use was probably forced down the throat of a rabbit, cat, or maybe even a dog. Each year, millions of animals are used to test how safe and effective products, such as cosmetics, are. They are genetically modified, force-fed harmful chemicals, blinded, scalded, and maimed. How could one not object to this awful cruelty. Animal testing should be banned because it is cruel, unnecessary, inaccurate, and expensive. The very first reason why animal testing should be banned is elementary: it is cruel and unnecessary....   [tags: Animal Rights]

Powerful Essays
538 words (1.5 pages)

Animal Testing And Animal Research Essays

- Animal testing has been around a long time, as back as the seventeen century in Harvey. In an article titled “History of Animal Research” by Understanding Animal Research they talk about some events that had happen in the past in the United Kingdom with the use of animal in scientific experiments. According to Understanding Animal Research, “In 1876, parliament passed the Cruelty to Animals Act, the first legislation aimed at regulating animal experiments” (para. 1). This was when they had approved to experiment in animals in the UK; the day they had decided to take the lives of instant animals that have not done animal harm....   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights]

Powerful Essays
1095 words (3.1 pages)

Human and Animal Interactions Essay

- The continuous shaping of America’s overall social, economical, and political systems correlates with how humans and animals interact. Helen Horowitz, Andrew Isenberg, Bonnie Clause, and Etienne Benson are some of the historians that have connected the treatment, view, and placement of animals in the American society throughout the developing of the country. These historians showcased animals that were used for things such as medical research, the displaying of wealth, as well as monetary gain....   [tags: animal and man]

Powerful Essays
800 words (2.3 pages)

Animal Cruelty Essay

- For one to completely understand animal cruelty one must know how animal cruelty is categorized. Animal cruelty was first categorized as a symptom of conduct disorder by the American Psychiatric Association in 1987 (McPhedran; 2008). Conduct disorder is defined as “a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others are major age appropriate societal norms or rules are violated” (American Psychiatric Association; 1994 as cited as McPhedran; 2008). To be diagnosed with conduct disorder, a person must have at least 3 of the 15 symptoms of the disorder presented....   [tags: Animal Rights]

Powerful Essays
1489 words (4.3 pages)

Eastern Cougars, Maybe Essay

- Eastern Cougars, Maybe (1) Most Field and Stream enthusiasts know that cougars are a fast and agile animal that can live for many years with no real predator other than humans. Another name for the cougar is the well used mountain lion which many Eastern states have named stores, schools, and even sports teams after. The distinction that the Mississippi river stops cougars from traveling into Eastern states can’t be proven because there are many animals in the West that are in the East. In Craig Springer’s "A Rumor of Cougar" article posted in the Field and Stream magazine depicts falsehood due to three interesting fallacies, a fallacy of distraction and two causal fallacies....   [tags: Animals Cougars Cougar Papers]

Free Essays
708 words (2 pages)