Malcolm Knowles introduced the term andragogy to the field of educational research in 1968, and he ultimately identified six underlying assumptions about adult learners (Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007, p. 84). While it may seem obvious now that adult learners have different needs and motivations, it had not been previously delineated or identified as such. The phrase ‘non-traditional student’ has long been used to describe adults who return to an educational setting after they have been out of high school for a few, or many years. A non-traditional student is often one who has not entered college immediately following high school graduation, might have dependents, is financially independent, is working full or part-time, and who, in many cases, is highly motivated to pursue an education with a very specific goal in mind (Palatnick, n.d.). This group of adult learners comprises the subject of andragogy.
Traditional Learning Environment
The phrase traditional learning generally refers to an on-ground, face-to-face classroom setting, with a teacher lecturing from the front of the room. When I attended graduate school, 25 years after graduating from college, my program included weekend-intensive sessions once a month, held at a local college campus. We stayed in the dorms and met throughout the weekend to complete a large portion of one graduate course, which was followed by at-home assignments. One course was taught by a professor who lectured exclusively as his method of teaching. There was little interaction, and no media used. The class met for three hours on Friday evening, six hours on Saturday, and three hours on Sunday morning, for a total of 12 hours of lectures in...
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...ppened precisely because the group was comprised of adult learners who were self-directed, highly motivated, with broad experience and skills, ready to work and anxious to learn. We met all criteria identified in Knowles’ assumptions about adult learners simply because that is what we were, and his assumptions accurately describe the characteristics of this group.
Hoffman, B., Ed. (2011). Andragogy. Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved from: http://eet.sdsu.edu/eetwiki/index.php/Andragogy
Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Palatnick, F. (n.d.). Definition of non-traditional students: A paradigm change. Retrieved from: http://www.evolllution.com/opinions/definition-of-non-traditional-students-a-paradigm-change/
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- Andragogy Personal Reflection Introduction Malcolm Knowles introduced the term andragogy to the field of educational research in 1968, and he ultimately identified six underlying assumptions about adult learners (Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007, p. 84). While it may seem obvious now that adult learners have different needs and motivations, it had not been previously delineated or identified as such. The phrase ‘non-traditional student’ has long been used to describe adults who return to an educational setting after they have been out of high school for a few, or many years.... [tags: non traditional student, adult learning]
1045 words (3 pages)
- Andragogy is the theory and practice of adult learning; the term “andragogy,” was coined by Malcolm Knowles in 1968 and is defined in its contrast to pedagogy, or the theory and practice of childhood learning. (Merriam, Cafarella, Baumgartner, 2007 p. 83-85) The principles of andragogy are founded on six basic assumptions; first, maturation leads to autonomy and self-direction; second, adulthood is characterized by previous experience and background knowledge; third, the capacity for adult learning is directly linked to the relevance of the learning in a social context; and fourth, adult learning takes place in relation to the problems solving application of the learning.... [tags: maturation, autonomy, self-direction]
2313 words (6.6 pages)
- What is andragogy. Andragogy consists of a theoretical model of six assumptions that was developed by Malcolm Knowles in order to “distinguish adult learning and adult education from other areas of education” (Mirriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 83). And so, andragogy might also be defined in terms of the efforts of “multiple researchers and scholars” (Henschke, 2011, p. 35) searching for a way to “establish andragogy as a proven theory and strong method for teaching adults” (Henschke, 2011, p.... [tags: adult learning, adult education]
2289 words (6.5 pages)
- INTRODUCTION In adult learning there have been few styles of learning but Malcolm Knowles theory has been around for nearly forty years. (Merriam, 2007) Knowles came up with six assumptions for his theory. Maturity helps one become more independent and self-directing. As an adult experiences life this makes their experiences a good resource. The adult’s readiness to learn that is associated with their work and social role. (Merriam, 2007) “ There is a change in time perspective as people mature-from future application of knowledge to immediacy of application.... [tags: Malcom Knowles]
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- Introduction Andragogy is a theory of adult learning and teaching. It is frequently compared to pedagogy, which is closely related but deals primarily with the teaching of children. Malcolm Knowles introduced the term andragogy in an article he wrote in 1968, in order to distinguish adult learning from preadult education, or pedagogy. Andragogy is “based on a number of assumptions about the adult learner” (Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007, p. 84). Although andragogy “became a rallying point for those trying to define the field of adult education as separate from other areas of education” (Merriam et al., 2007, p.... [tags: pedagogy, malcom knowles]
2051 words (5.9 pages)
- Learning environments that effectively meet the needs of adult students build upon the wealth of knowledge in the classroom, are student-driven, and have direct application to the problems of the adult's everyday life. In this essay, I will reflect upon a traditional learning experience that I experienced as an early college student. Additionally, using Knowles' theory of adult learning, I will consider how the experience could have been adapted. Traditional Learning Context As a 17 year old in the mid 1990s, I enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a private religious college in central Virginia.... [tags: Malcom Knowles, self-directed learning]
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- Let’s start with the end in mind – the future. Currently, Adult Learning Theory is in its infancy stage. This emerging theory is on the crawling stage before walking, in terms of developmental research, application, and practice. For the purpose of this report, the terms: adult learners, adult educators, adult education, and adult learning will be used interchangeably. The author will attempt wholeheartedly to align the appropriate term to the specific narrow point of discussion. In this report, Andragogy is defined as the study of adult learners, as oppose to the study of student learning, called Pedagogy.... [tags: Education, History of education, School]
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- Andragogy: All about Learning. Since the language of andragogy was introduced to North American adult educators by Malcolm Knowles, there have been continual debates about whether it is an adult learning theory, a teaching method, a philosophical statement, or all of the above. It is useful to take the development of andragogy into account when considering this question. When Knowles began writing about andragogy, he was already a well-respected figure in the adult education establishment. He had participated in the creation of the Black Book (Jensen, Liveright, and Hallenbeck 1964), a collection of writing setting out to define adult education as a discipline.... [tags: Andragogy Knowles Education Essays]
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983 words (2.8 pages)
- Andragogy Reflection Introduction The purpose of this paper is to analyze a traditional, lecture-based course that was not conducive for my learning and then redesign it applying Malcolm Knowles’ six assumptions for adult learning (as cited in Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). The method of teaching adults who are self-directed learners is defined as andragogy. Based on this concept, instruction should focus more on the process and less on the content being taught (Andragogy, 2013).... [tags: traditional learning, traditional classroom, ]
1113 words (3.2 pages)