Raphael 's famous painting “School of Athens” depicting the most famous Greek lovers of wisdom focuses on two characters discussing with each other. The two distinctive discussants are Plato and Aristotle. The first one points a finger at the sky saying that the essence of things is in the invisible realm of ideas. On the other hand, Aristotle thinks that the basis of reality is on the ground and with a steady hand indicates the concrete things. He thinks about the substance.
Substance is one of the fundamental philosophical concepts. Substance – ούσια (ousia), “means ‘being’, transmitted via the Latin substantia, which means ‘something that stands under or grounds things’. According to the generic sense, therefore, the substances in a philosophical system are those things which, according to that system, are the foundational or fundamental entities of reality” (Robinson, 1). A man living in the real world is constantly experiencing the existence of beings (substances). These are such beings, which "are based on themselves", that do not need a impulse to their existence from the outside.
The issue of substance Aristotle takes in his work "Metaphysics", which he calls "first philosophy". He believed that independent being, i.e. the substance are only concrete things. Tatarkiewicz states that “being may be considered in different ways: as a set of things, quality, quantum or relationships of various kinds” (3). Only "thing" is a substance, and quality, quanta and relationships can exist only in relation to things as their "accidents". The first philosophy is to explore an independent entity, and therefore the real thing, and to determine their properties and components. Conceptual ...
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...h the ideas.
Aristotle’s critique of Plato 's theory of forms (ideas) is well known. “In book I chapter 9 of the Metaphysics, one of the strategies Aristotle adopts to criticize the Academic doctrine is to call into question its internal consistency” (d’Hoine 263). This criticism caused that the conception of the idea in its pure form could no longer exist in philosophy, its elements, however, remained. Aristotle took, to some extent, Plato’s concept of the ideas, but its effect limited to the expressions of intellectual and productive actions. He believed that the pattern is the formal cause, but existing outside of a thing - in the intellect of a creator. The idea is a model, which create a real being. Therefore, the exemplar cause is the complement a formal causation in things produced by the people; causation is formally committed from the outside (Krapiec, 2).
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