Essay about The And Deal : The Structural, Human Resource, Political, And Symbolic

Essay about The And Deal : The Structural, Human Resource, Political, And Symbolic

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Bolman and Deal (2013) have identified four frames, the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic in their book Reframing Organizations. Each of these frames allow problems to be analyzed from different perspectives, and they can allow leaders to see how their organizations work in a new light. In side of each of these are more specific tools that leaders can use to gain insight into organization dynamics. Frame analysis is useful for leaders because it allows for a variety of different perspectives that can be used to diagnose, and ultimately solve various problems that organizations face (Smith, 2012).
Organizational structure is the linking of departments and jobs within an organization. The idea of self managing teams was a significant insight gained into organizational structure. Bolman and Deal state that self-directed teams typically produce better results and higher morale than groups operating under more traditional top-down control (p. 109). Through self-managing teams, employees can participate in work-related decisions including assigning jobs, planning and scheduling work, and taking action on problems (Park). The importance of self managing teams can be seen in that Adopting self-managing teams signals that the organization values employees’ input and recognizes their contributions (Allen et al. 2003), and employees may interpret such organizational actions as an indication of the organization’s commitment to them
(Whitener 2001; Brown, Geddes and Heywood 2007). (Park)
The human resource frame places emphasis on the relationship between the individual and the organization. However, people at work relate mostly to other people either individually or in group settings. A significant insight gained into th...


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... are plagued by three recurring questions (1) What is really happening in this relationship; (2) What motives are behind other peoples’ behavior; and, (3) What can I do about it (p. 164). An action leaders can take to expand their interpersonal effectiveness is to incorporating Argyris and Schön’s model II theory. Model II emphasizes integration of advocacy and inquiry (Bolman and Deal, 2013, p. 167). Leaders should incorporate models II three basic guide lines to gain effective interpersonal skills (1) Emphasize common goals and mutual influence; (2) Communicate openly; publicly test assumptions and beliefs; and, (3) Combine advocacy with inquiry (). Interpersonal dynamic skills is a frequently overlooked quality, leaders need to have the ability to understand team members well enough to motivate each individual according to the member’s unique and special needs.

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