The Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) was a predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire throughout Late Antiquity and the middle Ages. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania by its contemporaries, the empire was centered on the capital of Constantinople and was ruled by emperors in direct succession to the ancient Roman emperors after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The two main agents of continuity were the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Christian church. The Byzantine Empire existed for more than a thousand years (from approximately 306 to 1453). During its existence, the Empire remained one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe, despite setbacks and territorial losses, especially during the Roman–Persian and Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Byzantine Empire’s most important achievements were the preservation of forms, institutions and traditions of the old Roman Empire. Byzantium passed their intellectual heritage of Greco-Roman civilization on to later cultures.
The Sassanid Empire of Persia was recognized as one of the two main powers in Western Asia and Europe, alongside the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire. The Empire was founded by Ardashir I (r. 226-243) and lasted until 651. The Muslims overthrew the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanid Empire’s economic prosperity rested on agriculture, their location also made them suited for commerce. Zoroastrianism was the Persians official state religion. Zoroastrianism promoted hostility toward Christians because of the perception of their connections to Rome, Constantinople, and the Jewish population in Mesopotamia after Diaspora (dispersion of Jews from Jerusalem between 132 & 135). Byzantine Emperors preserv...
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...ceros horns, shells, and slaves to many Arab states. Interestingly it was largely Christian due to Christian missionaries who began converting subjects Nubian rulers around 600. The most powerful city on the coast of Africa was Kilwa and many Europeans began trading with these east African cities like Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Malindi. It was in this region that Islam began to spread and influence local cultures. The southernmost part of Africa unlike other regions was never impacted by European and Asian influences. Zimbabwe was settled in the 8th century by Bantu speaking people who bought their skills of ironworking and farming. Southern Africa remains largely unaffected by Europe until the Portuguese arrived in the 15th century. Shortly after the arrival of the Portuguese the Great Zimbabwe south east began to decline.
History of World Societies
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- Section A: Plan of Investigation During the years of 3500 BC to 2500 BC, the geography of a land often impacted a civilizations development in great measures. Depending on the resources available or the detriments present due to certain topographical characteristics like rivers or deserts, a civilization could flourish or collapse. By studying the geographic features of growing societies like the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers as well as the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the link between developing cultures and geography will be examined through sources, including Egypt: Ancient Culture, Modern Land edited by Jaromir Malek and Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilizat... [tags: ancient history, civilizations]
1772 words (5.1 pages)
- Societies of the ancient world’s prosperity relied heavily upon their agricultural capabilities. While Rome, Egypt, Greece, and Mesopotamia all learned to adapt to meet their agricultural needs, each ancient society faced different barriers that they would have had to adapt to in order to overcome and become prosperous enough to build strong civilizations. Such barriers included their climates, reliable water sources, and fertile lands. Founded by the Sumerians, Mesopotamia was a civilization founded in the Middle East around approximately 3,500 BCE in what the modern world today recognizes as most of Iraq, Kuwait, and the eastern parts of Syria between the rivers of the Tigris and Euphrates... [tags: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Agriculture]
1037 words (3 pages)
The Decay Of Ancient Civilization By Michael Rostovtzeff And Mohammed And Charlemagne By Henri Pirenne
- This assignment is both a comparison and an analysis of two essays; The Decay of Ancient Civilization written by Michael Rostovtzeff and Mohammed and Charlemagne by Henri Pirenne. The two essays offer varying perspectives on the fall of the Roman Empire and more specifically the transition between late antiquity to the beginning of the middle ages. The collapse of the Roman Empire is generally known to have concluded through one particular event; the sack of the great city of Rome. Although both essays give different accounts as the eventual collapse of the Roman Empire entails more than the “Barbaric” invasion as they further delve into from different perspectives.... [tags: Ancient Rome, Roman Empire]
1643 words (4.7 pages)
- The Western civilization and culture has brought many features to our every day life. In the Western world, people have developed their own social organization, religion, and educations (Mackay et al. 2012). Through ancient systems of writing to the latest invention, people keep evolving and shaping their knowledge to a better and successful life. Furthermore, people realized that through history, they could learn or discover new things, or how to prevent the same mistakes. In this essay, I will argue that Western Civilization has influenced people’s perspectives about various aspects (e.g.... [tags: Western civilizations from the past]
1274 words (3.6 pages)
- Few bygone civilizations fascinate us as much as that of the ancient Egyptians. The kingdom along the Nile River has been the subject of countless books, magazine articles, movies, and television shows and documentaries. There is even a hotel in Las Vegas with an ancient Egyptian theme. Museums all over the world dedicate entire galleries to excavated Egyptian artifacts, and Egypt itself receives millions of tourists flocking to photograph its ruins each year. There are many reasons behind our infatuation with ancient Egypt.... [tags: african history, anthropology, culture, Egypt]
3187 words (9.1 pages)
- Throughout the centuries Africa has been a continent of agricultural achievement and plenty. Agrarian practices and technologies developed in Africa were emulated by the world’s great civilizations and radiated to every corner of the world. It’s speculated by many naturalist (most notably Charles R. Darwin) that modern agriculture originated in Africa. Ancient cave paintings discovered by archeologist in Africa are certainly some of the earliest evidences of plant and animal domestication. Arabic and European historical accounts agree that African diets were varied and abundant from the beginning of recorded history up until the middle ages.... [tags: famine, poverty, war, slave trade]
2659 words (7.6 pages)
- In defining Muslim identity the widely held belief is that religion is the defining element. This is only partly true. Religion is only part of the picture, the normally secondary elements of class, gender and national belonging need to be examined. The issues of religion and identity formation can be explored thusly: differing concepts of religion and Islam should be considered to see how they have present particular frameworks. It is important to note that immigrants have identities other than those associated with their religion.... [tags: Expository Essay, Informative Essay]
4286 words (12.2 pages)
- During the fifteenth century Europeans busted onto the world scene. It began with the search for spices and Christians. Vasco da Gama set sail southward along the West African coast for the spice trade. He thought that others would soon adapt this trade and follow behind him. Christopher Columbus set sail towards America while Vasco da Gama went towards the Indian Ocean. Following this a large amount of European states came into the picture. They had created a widely complex global trade network.... [tags: World History, Columbus, Informative]
321 words (0.9 pages)
- God began His greatest work of creation. When God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground"(Genesis 1:26). As with the story of Adam and Eve in the Hebrew Bible, their goal was to define the moral principles that people thought should govern their dealing with the supernatural world, with each other, and with the rest of nature (Bulliet, “et al.” p.5).... [tags: Informative, Civilizations]
2094 words (6 pages)
- Ancient Kemet Egypt was without question the first great civilization in Africa. Surrounded by the hostile desert, Egypt arose as a populous settlement as a "gift of the Nile River," which flooded surrounding plains and thus supported game and wild plants. Straddling the strategic land crossroads between Africa, Asia, and Europe, Egypt also became a point for interchange between the Mediterranean and Red seas and the Persian Gulf. Many developments affecting the rest of Africa took place in or near the Nile Valley, such as the cultivation of plants and the development of metal smelting.... [tags: World History]
335 words (1 pages)